To Mulligan's charge in Telemachus that Stephen killed his mother, Stephen replies, “Someone killed her.” This exchange initiates a thread that runs throughout the novel. If God is to be understood as a creator who brings life into the world, he should also be understood as a butcher who takes it away.

JH 2013

Detail from Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

God's sheep. Source: mcdanell99theology.blogspot.com.

Francisco Goya's painting of Saturn devouring one of his sons, painted on the walls of his house ca. 1819-23, transferred to canvas after his death and now held in the Prado, Madrid. Source: Wikimedia Commons.