Mulligan says, "The aunt thinks you killed your mother . . . That's why she won't let me have anything to do with you." Then he himself reproaches Stephen: "You could have knelt down, damn it, Kinch, when your dying mother asked you." Here he resembles his model Oliver Gogarty, who casually declared to all his acquaintances “that Joyce was ‘mad,’ and ‘had killed his mother by telling her what he thought’” (Ellmann, 173). But Mulligan overstates the facts, assuming that they were similar to those surrounding Joyce’s mother’s death in August 1903.

JH 2011

May Murray Joyce surrounded by her father John Murray, her son James (age 6), and her husband John. Reproduced by Ellmann, courtesy of Mrs. May Joyce Monaghan.