"I don't want to see my country fall into the hands of German jews either. That's our national problem, I'm afraid, just now": Haines justifies his name in Telemachus by voicing theories of an international Jewish conspiracy. Near the end of Nestor, Deasy subjects Stephen to more of the same: "England is in the hands of the jews. In all the highest places: her finance, her press. And they are the signs of a nation's decay. Wherever they gather they eat up the nation's vital strength." In Proteus anti-Semitism makes an oblique appearance in Kevin Egan's mention of "M. Drumont, famous journalist." These three passages in the Telemachiad set the stage for Joyce's introduction of a Jewish protagonist in the fourth chapter, and for the prejudice exhibited by various Dubliners later in the book.

JH 2011

Portrait of Wilhelm Marr by unknown artist, from Vierhundert Jahre Juden in Hamburg (Doelling und Gallitz, 1991). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Dishonorable discharge of Alfred Dreyfus in January 1895 (Le traître: Dégradation d'Alfred Dreyfus, dégradation dans la Cour Morland de l'École militaire à Paris). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Photograph of Alfred Dreyfus, date unknown. Source: Wikimedia Commons.