Having approached Stephen's consciousness with the word "Chrysostomos," the narrative enters its orbit again by saying that Mulligan's "plump shadowed face and sullen oval jowl recalled a prelate, patron of arts in the middle ages." Thornton cites good evidence from a 1912 essay by Joyce to suppose that he had in mind Pope Alexander VI (Roderigo Borgia, father of Cesare and Lucrezia), a notoriously corrupt Renaissance pontiff and famous patron of the arts.

JH 2011

Pope Alexander VI, portrait by Christofano dell'Altissimo in the Corridoio Vasariano, Florence. Source: Wikimedia Commons.