The "wild geese," Irish Catholic fighters expatriated by unsuccessful resistance to British rule, come up several times in Ulysses, beginning in Proteus. The term usually refers to soldiers who left Ireland in the 17th and 18th centuries to join foreign armies, and later chapters mention the military and political exploits of these men and their descendants, but Stephen applies the phrase to Kevin Egan, a Fenian from the 1860s who has been living quietly in Paris.

JH 2016

Anonymous Irish portrait of Patrick Sarsfield, first Earl of Lucan (ca. 1660-1693). Sarsfield died in Flanders fighting as a general in the army of King Louis XIV. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

The Battle of Fontenoy, 1828 oil painting by Horace Vernet, held in the Galerie des Batailles, Palace of Versailles, showing Charles O'Brien, 6th Viscount Clare, presenting a captured British flag to King Louis XV and the dauphin. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

1889 lithograph of Leopoldo O'Donnell, Prime Minister of Spain, by the author and engraver Antonio Pirala. Source: Wikimedia Commons.