Not least of the bewildering ways in which Proteus plunges the reader into the waves of Stephen's thoughts, with little connection to the dry land of dialogue and action, is its refusal to translate his kaleidoscopic multilingualism into English. Just as Dante's phrase maestro di color che sanno introduces a number of thoughts in Italian, Gotthold Lessing's terms nacheinander and nebeneinander trigger further expressions in German. As a young man Joyce studied German in order to read Hauptmann's plays (Ellmann 76, 87) and he continued to learn more of it during his years in Europe (including especially some time spent living in Zurich), but he never became as fluent in the language as he was in French and Italian.

JH 2014

Marlene Dietrich in Knight Without Armor. Source: www.doctormacro.com.