In Proteus Kevin Egan talks to Stephen about Irish nationalistic aspirations: "of hopes, conspiracies, of Arthur Griffith now." Griffith (1872-1922) was an ardent nationalist who worked for independence first as a journalist and later as a politician. At the time represented in the novel, he was beginning to organize the political movement that in 1907 became Sinn Féin. It seems that Bloom has been involved in some of these negotiations. Joyce himself approved of Griffith's political program, though he did become involved in a small tiff with him over "those big words which make us so unhappy."

Arthur Griffith ca. 1920. Source:

The first issue of The United Irishman in 4 March 1899, founded by Arthur Griffith upon his return from covering the Boer War. Source: