Stephen grants little respect to the most widely admired poet of Victorian England, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, mocking his decorous gentility with the name "Lawn Tennyson" and the title "gentleman poet." A current of hostility to English mores, English social hierarchy, and English imperialism runs through the novel's responses to this major writer. But Joyce may have derived serious inspiration from at least one of Tennyson's poems—the one that shares a title with his novel.

JH 2015

Photograph of Tennyson ca. 1860. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

The Charge of the Light Brigade, painting by Richard Caton Woodville, Jr. Source: Wikimedia Commons.