"Martin Cunningham, first, poked his silkhatted head into the creaking carriage and, entering deftly, seated himself": Hades begins by reintroducing a character from Dubliners. Cunningham appears again in Wandering Rocks and Cyclops, and is mentioned in more than half the chapters of the novel. Joyce drew several of his identifying features, including the hat, from a man named Matthew Francis Kane whose funeral served as a model for Paddy Dignam's. Cunningham stands apart from most Dubliners in Ulysses as unusually sympathetic, competent, and purposeful. But Joyce also gave him qualities that relegate him to second-class status, inferior to the less conventional Bloom.

JH 2018

Photographic portrait, date unknown, of Matthew F. Kane with the "silkhatted head" which Joyce gave to Martin Cunningham. Source: www.jjon.org.

Kane's gravestone in Glasnevin's Prospect Cemetery, unveiled on 16 June 1988. Source: www.kunstgeografie.nl.