The 7th episode, usually called Aeolus, parodies the format of a newspaper, with block headlines introducing short, punchy chunks of text. Since its "art" is rhetoric, it is also filled to the brim with figures of speech: formulaic patternings of words that capture attention and stir response. Of the hundreds of such figures that were identified by theorists of rhetoric in antiquity, metaphor is easily the most familiar, so it is fitting that Aeolus begins with one: "IN THE HEART" of a big city. This is precisely the kind of stale metaphor that modern men and women expect to encounter in newspaper headlines, but Joyce will breathe new life into the tiresome cliché before long.

JH 2013

Banner headlines in The Irish Independent, 1 September 1913. Source: www.rte.ie.

Title page of Quintilian's Institutes, copied by Petrus Ursulaeus and illustrated by the Master of Isabella di Chiaromonte ca. 1450 in Naples, held in Paris in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Source: www.europeanaregia.eu.