Ulysses contains many references to the "jesuits," a.k.a. "the Society of Jesus" or "S.J.," a large order of Catholic priests and brothers founded in the sixteenth century by Ignatius "Loyola" (1491-1566), a Spanish knight from a noble Basque family. Stephen Dedalus, like Joyce, has received a good Jesuit education during most of his pre-university years, and an official in both of the schools he attended, "John Conmee S.J.," appears under his own name in both A Portrait and Ulysses.

JH 2015

Oil portrait of Loyola by Peter Paul Rubens. The initials AMDG at the head of his writing are a Jesuit motto signifying Ad maioram gloriam Dei, "To the greater glory of God." Stephen Dedalus starts his school themes with these initials in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Source:

Statue of Loyola in the reception area of Clongowes Wood College today, photographed in 2013 by Leftofcentresayshi. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Detail from a painting of Saint Peter Claver, by an unknown artist. Source:

Photograph of Father John Conmee.