In Hades Bloom notes that the carriage is nearing a "Gasworks"  plant, and many later chapters glance at its product. Cities in Britain, America, and Europe had been building these coal gasification facilities for nearly a hundred years, and they remained important well into the 20th century, until electricity and "natural" gas from drilled wells put them out of business. More than 3,000 Dublin streetlights were fueled by coal gas, and most middle-class homes had at least one room lit by it.

JH 2023

Detail of 1900 Bartholomew's map showing gasworks along Ringsend Road and Great Brunswick Street. Source: Pierce, James Joyce's Ireland.

1985 photograph of Dublin gasworks with two cylindrical gasometers on a site next to Sir John Rogerson's Quay that was built later than the facility mentioned in Ulysses. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

The Alliance Building on South Lotts Street, originally built as a gasometer in 1885. Source:

Photograph of a Dublin Corporation lamplighter, date unknown.