Twenty millions of Irish

His unrelenting prejudice, bluster, and ignorance notwithstanding, the Citizen voices some patriotic sentiments that Joyce clearly shared. This seems especially true of the paragraph in which he rants about how England has devastated Ireland's economy and population—"our ruined trade and our ruined hearths." He begins with three sentences of disastrous history: "Where are our missing twenty millions of Irish should be here today instead of four, our lost tribes? And our potteries and textiles, the finest in the whole world! And our wool that was sold in Rome in the time of Juvenal and our flax and our damask from the looms of Antrim and our Limerick lace, our tanneries and our white flint glass down there by Ballybough and our Huguenot poplin that we have since Jacquard de Lyon and our woven silk and our Foxford tweeds and ivory raised point from the Carmelite convent in New Ross, nothing like it in the whole wide world." Some of this is over the top, but it is based on mostly accurate information.

John Hunt 2021

The National Famine Monument unveiled in 1997 at Murrisk, County Mayo, depicting one of the "coffin ships" that carried Irish emigrants to Canada and the U.S., with human bones as rigging. Source:

2008 photograph by Jnestorius of "the good ship" Jeanie Johnston (no one ever died on it) moored at an easterly quay in Dublin. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Rodney Charman's 1970 painting Irish Coffin Ship, Below Deck. Source:

James Tissot's ca. 1896-1902 gouache on board painting The Flight of the Prisoners, showing Babylonians driving Israelites from their homeland. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Ornate medieval pottery jug from Dublin. Source:

Depiction of man dressed in elaborate textiles in an early Irish manuscript.  Source:

Engraving by Francis Holl of a young Ulster woman sitting at a spinning wheel, turning flax fibers into linen thread (men traditionally wove the thread into cloth, but women did that during the Napoleonic Wars). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Kettle drum leaded crystal bowl ca. 1795-1820 from the Waterford glassworks. Source:

Needlepoint lace made at the Carmelite convent in New Ross, County Wexford. Source: