Cold of interstellar space

Stephen's departure in Ithaca brings a feeling of desolation: "Alone, what did Bloom feel? / The cold of interstellar space..." Nothing here particularly suggests a literary allusion, but the scene is almost certainly informed by the moment in Dante's Purgatorio when the protagonist finds that his companion and guide has deserted him: "But Virgil had left us bereft" (30.49). The ways that Joyce sets the scene, deploys characters, and shapes language all recall ways in which Dante presented the devastating loss of Virgil's companionship. 

John Hunt 2022

Carl Wilhelm Friederich Osterely's 1845 oil painting of the meeting of Dante and Beatrice in the garden of Eden. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Andrea Pierini's The Meeting of Dante and Beatrice in Purgatory, 1853 oil on canvas painting held in the Galleria d'Arte Moderna, Florence.
Source: Wikimedia Commons.

William Blake's Beatrice Addressing Dante from the Car, ca. 1824-27 ink and watercolor on paper, held in the Tate Gallery, London. Source: