In lieu of a separate bibliography, or lists of Works Cited at the end of notes, this website includes bibliographical citations in the notes, often in shortened forms referring readers to this list of Sources. The following published collections of Ulysses annotations are referenced very frequently and identified very concisely:

        Weldon Thornton, Allusions in Ulysses, 2nd ed. (U North Carolina P, 1968)
                The first free-standing published collection of annotations
        Don Gifford with Robert J. Seidman, Ulysses Annot.ated, 2nd ed. (U California P, 1988)
                 A fuller free-standing collection
        James Joyce, Ulysses, notes by Sam Slote (Alma Classics, 2012)
                An edition of the novel with notes at the back
        Sam Slote, Marc A. Mamigonian, and John Turner, Annotations to James Joyce's Ulysses
                (Oxford UP, 2022)  
                The latest, and fullest, free-standing collection of annotations
        Harald Beck and John Simpson, eds., James Joyce Online Notes (JJON,
                An online, and ongoing, collection of web pages aimed at experienced readers

Notes written from December 2022 onward refer to the Annotations by Slote and his collaborators, while most earlier notes refer to Slote's annotated edition of the novel. For the sake of brevity my post-2022 notes sometimes refer simply to "Slote," and I usually refer only to "Gifford," mentioning Seidman only when discussing musical allusions and rhetorical tropes, the two areas in which he contributed to Gifford's work. In addition to collections of annotations I often acknowledge the contributions of interested readers who have communicated with me to point out things that scholars have not yet noticed. They are identified only by name.

Much less frequently cited are editions of Ulysses with briefer annotations, annotated editions of Joyce's other fictions, and guides for new readers of Ulysses:

        Don Gifford, Joyce Annotated: Notes for Dubliners and A Portrait, 2nd ed. (U Cal P, 1982)
        Terence Brown, Dubliners (Penguin, 1992)
        Declan Kiberd, Ulysses: Annotated Students' Edition (Penguin, 1992)
        Jeri Johnson, Ulysses: The 1922 Text (Oxford UP, 1993)
        Harry Blamires, The Bloomsday Book, 3rd ed. (Routledge, 1996)
        Roland McHugh, Annotations to Finnegans Wake, 3rd ed. (Johns Hopkins UP, 2006)
        Patrick Hastings, The Guide to James Joyce's Ulysses (Johns Hopkins UP, 2022)
        Terence Killeen, Ulysses Unbound, 4th ed. (Penguin, 2022)

When not otherwise identified, quotations from Homer, Dante, Shakespeare, the Bible, and Joyce's other works are taken from the following published texts:

        James Joyce, Collected Poems (Viking, 1957)
        The Critical Writings of James Joyce, ed. Ellsworth Mason and Richard Ellmann (Viking, 1959)
        Homer, The Odyssey, trans. Robert Fitzgerald (Random House, 1961)
        James Joyce, Dubliners, ed. Terence Brown (Penguin, 1992)
        James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, ed. Seamus Deane (Penguin, 1992)
        The Riverside Shakespeare, ed. G. Blakemore Evans et al, 2nd ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 1997)
        James Joyce, Finnegans Wake, ed. John Bishop (Penguin, 1999)
        Dante Alighieri, Inferno, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2000)
        Dante Alighieri, Purgatorio, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2003)
        Dante Alighieri, Paradiso, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2007)
        The English Bible: King James Version, The Old Testament, ed. Herbert Marks (Norton, 2012)
        The English Bible: King James Version, The New Testament and the Apocrypha, ed. Gerald                             Hammond and Austin Busch (Norton, 2012)
        Homer, The Odyssey, trans. Emily Wilson (Norton, 2018)

Scholarly journal articles receive full bibliographical citation––author, title, journal, volume, date, page numbers––within the notes. Websites are cited by URL address, occasionally with an active link, and by an author and date if this information is supplied on the site. Unpublished dissertations, theses, and papers are cited simply by author, title, and year of completion.

Most books other than volumes of annotations are identified in the notes by author, title, and year of publication. Some, however, come up so frequently that they are cited only by author and/or title:

        Stuart Gilbert, James Joyce's Ulysses (Knopf, 1930)       
        Frank Budgen, James Joyce and the Making of Ulysses (Smith & Haas, 1934) 
`       Oliver St. J. Gogarty, As I Was Going Down Sackville Street (Reynal & Hitchcock, 1937)  
        Stanislaus Joyce, My Brother's Keeper: James Joyce's Early Years (Viking, 1958)  
        Robert Martin Adams, Surface and Symbol (Oxford UP, 1967)
        The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) (Oxford UP, 1971)
        Clive Hart and David Hayman, James Joyce's Ulysses: Critical Essays (U California P, 1974)S
        Zack Bowen, Musical Allusions in the Works of James Joyce (SUNY Press, 1974)
        Mary Reynolds, Joyce and Dante: The Shaping Imagination (Princeton UP, 1981)      
        Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, ed. Ivor H. Evans (Harper & Row, 1981)
        Richard Ellmann, James Joyce, 2nd ed. (Oxford UP, 1982)
        Robert Janusko, The Sources and Structures of James Joyce's Oxen (UMI Research P, 1983)
        Hugh Kenner, Ulysses, 2nd ed. (Johns Hopkins UP, 1987)
        A. Nicholas Fargnoli and Michael P. Gillespie, James Joyce A-Z (Oxford UP, 1995)
        John Wyse Jackson and Peter Costello, John Stanislaus Joyce (St. Martin's, 1997)
        Terence Patrick Dolan, A Dictionary of Hiberno-English, 2nd ed. (Gill & Macmillan, 2004)
        Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase and Fable, ed. Sean McMahon and Jo O'Donoghue                                    (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004)
        Ian Gunn and Clive Hart with Harald Beck, James Joyce's Dublin (Thames & Hudson, 2004)
        Douglas Bennett, The Encyclopaedia of Dublin, 3rd ed. (Gill & Macmillan, 2005)
        Vivien Igoe, The Real People of Joyce's Ulysses (UC Dublin P, 2016)

Some images on the site have been selectively scanned from books in accordance with fair-use principles. Books that have supplied multiple images include:

        John F. Finerty, Ireland in Pictures (1898)
                Photographs by Finerty
        Gisèle Freund and V. B. Carleton, James Joyce in Paris: His Final Years (Harcourt, Brace, 1965)
                Photographs by Freund
        Flora H. Mitchell, Vanishing Dublin (Allen & Figgis, 1966)
                Watercolors by Mitchell
        Chester G. Anderson, James Joyce (Thames and Hudson, 1967)
                Map by Hanni Bailey, photographs by Anderson and from other sources
        Cyril Pearl, Dublin in Bloomtime (Viking, 1969)
                Photographs from the National Library of Ireland
William York Tindall, The Joyce Country (Schocken, 1972)
                Photographs by Tindall
        James Joyce's Ulysses: A Facsimile of the Manuscript, 3 vols. (Octagon, 1975)
                Photographic facsimiles of the pages of the Rosenbach Foundation manuscript
        Clive Hart and Leo Knuth, A Topographical Guide to Ulysses, 2nd ed. (Wake Newslitter P, 1976)
                Maps and drawings by Knuth
        Frank Delaney and Jorge Lewinski, James Joyce's Odyssey (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981)
                Photographs by Lewinski and from various archives   
        Jack McCarthy with Danis Rose, Joyce's Dublin: A Walking Guide, 2nd ed. (St. Martin's, 1988)
                Maps by Bob Conrad and photographs from the National Library of Ireland
        David Pierce, James Joyce's Ireland (Yale UP, 1992)
                Photographs by Dan Harper and from various archives
        Bernard McCabe and Alain Le Garsmeur, James Joyce: Reflections of Ireland (Macmillan, 1993)
                Photographs by Le Garsmeur
        Richard Hamilton, Imaging James Joyce's Ulysses (The British Council, 1999)
                Drawings, prints, and digital images by Hamilton
        Ian Gunn and Clive Hart with Harald Beck, James Joyce's Dublin (Thames & Hudson, 2004)
                Maps by Gunn and Stephen Patterson

The great majority of the photographic images that accompany the notes are taken from the Web, and a majority of those come from Wikimedia Commons. I make an effort to identify and cite the creator of the work, its location if displayed in a museum or other public space, and the address of a relatively authoritative website if the image appears on many. The websites of the National Library of Ireland ( and the National Archives of Ireland ( have provided many useful photographs. Others were taken in recent years by John Hunt, Senan Molony, Gareth Collins, and Randall Cone (see Contributors).

Video and audio clips come mainly from YouTube. When performers and dates or locations of performance can be identified, they are cited in the captions.