Subjects in the Notes

This guide to the site’s notes resembles the Index of Subjects in a scholarly book, but it is organized differently. Four dozen broad subject categories are listed at the top, with links to headings below. Below each subject heading are titles of relevant notes (listed alphabetically, with initial "A" and "The" disregarded). After each title is a short parenthetical summary of how the note addresses the topic. Hyperlinks in these titles will eventually lead directly to the notes, but for now users can look them up in the Index of Titles. A few other explanations are in order:

Most notes on the site are indebted in some way to existing annotations and other scholarship, and they acknowledge those debts so frequently that the long list of "Joyce's commentators" here would balloon into uselessness if it cited every such reference. I have tried to limit it to relatively substantial or original contributions to the understanding of Ulysses. Some of the most frequently cited scholars (e.g., Gifford, Slote, Ellmann, Igoe) are under-represented in this list.

Three poets who play particularly prominent roles in Joyce’s novel (Homer, Dante, Shakespeare) receive their own categories, with parenthetical identification of relevant passages in their bodies of work. Less prominently featured writers are listed under broad language categories ("English literature"; "French literature"; "Other literatures").

Most notes appear under two or more subject categories, because they are small essays that address multiple topics and because the purpose of this list is to give users multiple approaches to them.

Advertising   (newspapers, posters, street displays, mailings, jingles)
Antiquity   (Greek, Roman, Hebrew, Irish)
Bible   (allusions to books from Genesis to Revelation)
Bodily needs   (hunger, thirst, warmth, excretion, menstruation, tooth care, physical safety)
Catholicism    (liturgy, observances, prayers, devotions, churches, garments, orders)
Christian beliefs   (creeds, theology, Mariology, historiography, music)
Consumer goods   (food, drink, drugs, soap, smokes, matches)
Dante   (Vita Nuova, Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso)
Death   (dying, burial and mourning practices, ideas of immortality, grieving and guilt)
Dublin businesses   (pubs, restaurants, shops, hotels, baths, pharmacies)
Dublin institutions  (civic organizations, hospitals, schools, libraries, churches, public spaces)
Dublin people   (real people with actual names, real people with fictional names, fictional people)
Dublin streets   (streets, bridges, travel routes, neighborhoods, districts, suburbs)
English literature   (English, Irish, Scottish, American, and Australian works)
French literature   (from Montaigne to Joyce's contemporaries in Paris)
Gabler edition of Ulysses   (emendations good, bad, and indifferent)
Games and sports   (children's games, adult games, sporting events, physical exercises)
German literature   (drama, philosophy, psychology, sociology, religion)
Homer   (echoes of passages in the Odyssey and several in the Iliad)
Household furnishings   (furniture, doors, fireplaces, hangings, flatware, musical instruments)
Irish history   (from prehistoric legends to national independence)
Irish language and customs    (Irish and Hiberno-English expressions, legends, humor)
Jews   (Jewish individuals, Jewishness, Judaism, antisemitism, Zionism)
Joyce’s commentators   (from Stuart Gilbert and Frank Budgen to the present day)
Joyce’s life   (family, friends, education, artistic career, marriage)
Joyce’s other works   (Hero, A Portrait, Dubliners, Exiles, Chamber Music, Wake, essays)
Making Ulysses    (prose styles, narrative techniques, rhetorical figures, authorial designs)
Medicine and illness   (infectious diseases, ailments, drugs, hospitals, nurses, physicians)
Metaphysics   (non-Christian cosmologies, mysticism, philosophical idealism)
Money and economics   (currency, wealth, poverty, financial dealings, philantropy)
Music for concert hall and church   (operas, operettas, masses, oratorios, art songs) 
News   (newspapers, news stories, reporters, publishers)
Orientalism   (Egypt, Palestine, Arabia, Turkey, Persia, India, Ceylon, Burma, China, Polynesia)
Other literatures   (Italian, Norwegian, Danish, Spanish, Welsh, Sanskrit)
Other lives   (animals and plants)
Places abroad   (France, England, South Africa, Gibraltar, Italy, America)
Places in Ireland   (towns, landscapes, bodies of water, mountains, infrastructure, sights)
Plays and players    (theaters, actors, plays, minstrel shows, street theater)
Popular songs and rhymes    (music hall songs, ballads, folk songs, nursery rhymes, street rhymes)
Psychology   (obsessions, passions, joy, guilt, distraction, remorse, moods)
Religious people    (priests, bishops, popes, saints, prophets, theologians, lay worshipers)

Science and technology   (physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, inventions)
Sexuality   (acts, orientations, attraction and repulsion, pornography, contraception)
Shakespeare   (plays, poems, life, reputation)
Things worn and carried   (clothes, shoes, hats, underwear, canes, calling cards, money)
Transportation   (trains,  trams, cabs, barges, ships, automobiles, stations, shelters)
Victorian legacies   (clothing, mourning, monarchy, sexuality, cultural theories)
Visual arts   (architecture, sculpture, painting, drawing, flowers, gestures)


    Balm of Gilead (marketing of patent medicine)
    Best value in Dublin (newspaper ad)
    Cantrell and Cochrane's (poster and bar mirror)
    Clery's summer sales (poster)
    Davy Stephens (periodical vendor's self-promotion)
    Eugene Stratton (poster for stage act)
    Hoardings (posters plastered on walls)
    Plumtree’s Potted Meat (newspaper ad)
    Prescott's dyeworks (tram and newspaper ads)
    Prix de Paris (hucksters' pitches)
    Puff (promotional stories and blurbs)
    Soap (promotional jingles)
    Wisdom Hely’s (street ads)

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    Absurd name (Greek roots of Stephen Dedalus)
    Altar’s horns (Hebrew altars)
    Augur's rod (Roman priests)
    Brass quoits (discus throwing)
    Call it, wait (ancient Greek philosophy)
    Cassandra (Trojan seer)
    Dead Sea (Hebrew stories of divine punishment)
    Deshil Holles Eamus (Roman priests)
    Druids (Irish priests)
    Exodus (Hebrews' departure from Egypt)
    The grandeur that was Rome (Rome's greatness)
    Hades (classical underworlds of Homer and Virgil)
    Hyperborean (Greek ideas of the far north)
    Imperial, imperious, imperative (Roman empire)
    In the heart (Greek and Roman rhetorical theory)
    Isle of saints (Druidic Ireland)
    Julius Caesar (murdered in attempt to prevent Roman empire)
    Language of flowers (Hebrew, Greek, and Roman floriography)
    Malachi (Roman messenger of the gods)
    Metempsychosis (Greek philosophers, Orphic religion)
    No hair there (Greek and Roman statues)
    Omphalos (Delphic oracle)
    Prix de Paris (Paris and Helen)
    Pyrrhus (warrior against the Roman empire)
    Read them in the original (classical Greek literature)
    Remembering thee (Babylonian captivity of Hebrews)
    Sacred Heart (Greek painter Zeuxis)
    Saint Patrick (pagan kings of Ireland)
    Salt cloak (Hebrew stories of divine punishment)
    Sandow’s exercises (Greek ideal of physical beauty)
    Shrewridden (Socrates’ wife, Aristotle)
    Slimmer (Greek goddesses)
    Slowed, shunted, changed (Greek and Roman rhetorical theory)
    Testicles (Hebrew, Roman, Babylonian, Greek, and Irish oaths)
    Thalatta! (Xenophon’s Greek warriors)
    Vast, I allow: but vile (Roman view of Greeks)
    Venus (Greek statues of ideal female and male bodies)
    Very little perceptive (Roman historians)

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Altar’s horns (Exodus)
    Archangel Michael (Revelation)
    Balm of Gilead (Jeremiah)
    Be as gods (Genesis)
    Coin of tribute (Matthew, Luke, John)
    Come out of them (Mark, Luke)
    Contransmagnific (Luke)
    Darkness (John)
    Dead Sea (Genesis)
    Descende, calve (2 Kings)
    Ecce homo (Matthew, John)
    Ex nihilo (Genesis, 2 Maccabees)
    Exodus (Exodus, Psalms)
    Far and wide (Exodus)
    Fleshpots (Exodus)
    Ingemiscit (Romans)
    Jesus wept (John)
    Jew merchants (John)
    Joachim (Luke, Revelation)
    Kidneys of wheat (Deuteronomy)
    Let there be life (Genesis, Matthew)
    Lucifer (Psalms, Isaiah, Mark, Luke, John)
    Malachi (Malachi)
    Martha and Mary (Luke, John)
    Mustered and bred (Genesis)
    Naked Eve (Genesis, Song of Songs)
    New Jerusalem (Jeremiah, Revelation)
    No free drinks (John)
    Olivet (Acts)
    Parable of the Plums (Mark)
    Paris stock exchange (gospels)
    Passover (Exodus, Deuteronomy, John)
    Remembering thee (Psalms)
    The sacred pint (Mark)
    Salt cloak (Genesis)
    Samaritan (Luke)
    Server (Genesis)
    Star of the Sea (Revelation)
    Stripped of his garments (Matthew)
    Testicles (Genesis)
    This is my body (Matthew, Mark, Luke)
    Two Maries (Exodus, Matthew)
    Übermensch (Proverbs)
    Unclean loins (Genesis, Leviticus)
    Woman’s hand (1 Kings)
    Writing on the wall (Daniel)

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Bodily needs

    Armstrap (protective loops on carriage walls)
    Cascara sagrada (herbal treatment for constipation)

    A cenar teco (hunger)

    Chamber music (sound of urination)
    Cloacal obsession (answer to charge made by H. G. Wells)
    Cock Lake (Stephen’s urination)
    Cuckstool (Bloom’s defecation)
    Dustbuckets (Bloom’s defecation)
    Father Mathew (temperance movement)
    Fleshpots (hunger)
    Greenhouses (public urinals)
    Happy warmth (animal heat)
    Isle of dreadful thirst (hunger and thirst)
    Lestrygonians (need to eat every day)
    The man in the macintosh (hunger)
    Mary Ann (urination)
    Mother Grogan (urination)
    No thoughts (Latin word for urination)
    Piles (excretion)
    Sawdust (urinating on floors)
    Silent ship (Stephen's nose-picking)
    Soap (cleanliness)
    This job (Stephen’s urination)

    Toothless (dental needs)

    Waters come down (Molly’s menstruation)

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A cenar teco (penitence)
    And ever shall be (doxology)
    Archangel Michael (prayers for divine protection)
    Celestials (mission to China)
    Christian Brothers (educational order run by lay teachers)
    Communion (ritual within the Mass)
    Composition of place (spiritual devotions)
    Conversion (competition with Protestants and Jews)
    Crossed (sign of the cross)
    Dringdring! (bells rung in Mass)
    Ecce homo (crucifixion, Mass)
    Exodus (Gregorian chant)
    Father Farley (combating false belief)
    Freemasons (conflict with the Masonic order)
    Genuine Christine (black mass)
    Handmaid of the moon (prayer celebrating the Annunciation)
    Hokypoky (transubstantiation)
    Holy water (church fonts and aspergilla)
    Huguenots (hostility to French Protestants)
    Increase and multiply (sexual teachings)
    Into the choir (exclusion of women)
    Introibo (Mass)
    The Irish church (state seizure of church)
    Jesuits (clerical educational order)
    Liliata rutilantium (prayer for the dying)
    Moore (conversion to Protestantism)
    Nimbus and niche (church recess)
    Old Mrs Riordan (sexual repression, damnation)
    Our Father (prayer)
    Prepuces (circumcision)
    Repent! (prayer and penitence)
    Sacred Heart (lay devotional practice)
    Sacred pint (underground church)
    Scapulars (devotional patches affording divine protection)
    Server (altar boys)
    Shrive and oil (extreme unction)
    Sodality (fraternal pious organizations)
    Stabat Mater (romantic setting of sacred text)
    Star of the Sea (Mariology)
    Stolewise (priestly garments)
    Stripped of his garments (Stations of the Cross)
    This is my body (Mass)
    Those white corpuscles (transubstantiation)
    Ungirdled (priestly garments)

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Christian beliefs

    Aquinas (incorporation of Aristotelian philosophy)
    Aristotle (creation from nothing)
    Arius (hierarchical Trinity)
    Communion (presence of God within)
    Consubstantiality (incarnation, Trinity)
    Contransmagnific (Trinity, transubstantiation, Mariology, immanence)
    Creed (Trinity)
    Crosstrees (crucifixion and resurrection)
    Darkness (symbolism of divine light)
    Ex nihilo (creation from nothing)
    Hangman god (God as destroyer)
    Heaventree (celestial heavens)
    Joachim (typological historiography)
    Lucifer (Satan, Christ)
    Mass for Pope Marcellus (plainsong and polyphony)
    My father’s a bird (the Annunciation)
    Occam (hypostasis)
    Olivet (resurrection)
    One great goal (linear historiography)
    Pain of love (God as Love)
A shout in the street (divine immanence)
    Signatures (Book of Nature)
    Symbol of the Apostles (early creed)

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Consumer goods

    Absinthe (reputedly deranging liqueur)
   A cenar teco (aristocratic feasting)
    Aq. Dist. Fol. Laur. Te Virid (drug mixtures)
    Ashtown (cool well water)
    Balm of Gilead (patent medicine)
    Benedictine and Chartreuse (liqueurs)
    Cantrell and Cochrane’s (ginger ale soft drink)
    Chaussons (pastries, beer, cheese sauce)
    Citrons (lemon-like fruit)
    Come home to ma (alcoholic drinking)
    Dan Dawson’s speech (bread)   
    Do his duty (alcoholic drinking)
    Dorset Street (various food shops)
    Epps’s cocoa (water-soluble cocoa)
    Findlaters (spirits and groceries)
    Hokypoky (ice creams)
    Into my eye (cigar)
    Isle of dreadful thirst (longing for alcohol)
    Kidneys were in his mind (meat)
    Lime Street (offal)
    Lithia water (bottled mineral water, whiskey)
    Lotus Eaters (tobacco, alcohol, opium)
    Mity cheese (cheese with mites)
    Naggin (small whiskey bottle)
    Old man (surplus beer)
    An ounce of opium (Chinese opium addiction)
    Plumtree’s Potted Meat (meat flakes)
    Pubs (alcohol)
    Red Bank oysters (County Clare oysters)
    Sherbet (cold flavored waters)
    Soap (toilet soaps and household cleaning soap)
    Sweny's (skin lotion)
    Tobacco (pipes and cigarettes)

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    Arbour Hill (references to future events)
    Aristotle (called the maestro di color che sanno in Inferno 4)
    Brunetto (spiritual fathers in Inferno 1 and 15)
    Consubstantiality (Sabellius and Arius in Paradiso 13)
    The cold of interstellar space (losing Virgil in Purgatorio 30)
    Ex nihilo (Statius' embryology in Purgatorio 25)
    Exodus (peregrini in Vita Nuova 40 and Purgatorio 2, lantern in Purgatorio 1 and 22)
    Hades ("so many" dead people in Inferno 3)
    Heaventree (sight of the stars in Inferno 34, ascent through the heavens in Paradiso)
    He thought that he thought (mental mirroring in Inferno 13)
    How many! (Inferno 3, 5, and 18, Purgatorio 5)
    Isosceles triangle (Beatrice as a numerical principle in Vita Nuova 19 and 29)
    Joachim ("Abbas" title possibly inspired by abate in Paradiso 12)
    Master Bloom (responses to shaking and shouting in Purgatorio 20)
    Old Mrs Riordan (pious zealot nicknamed "Dante")
    Salt bread (Cacciaguida's prophecy of exile in Paradiso 17)
    Your own master (Virgil's crowning of Dante in Purgatorio 27)

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    Aconite (suicide of Bloom’s father)
    Alive all the time (being buried alive)
    Bad gas (putrefaction gases)
    Crape (mourning fabric)
    Dogsbody (death as the end of life)
    Everyman (medieval memento mori)
    Fine old custom (horsedrawn funeral processions)
    Five fathoms (Shakespearean immortality)
    Floating flower (Buddhist immortality)
    Frogmore Memorial (mourning of Queen Victoria)
    Ghoststory (Stephen's guilt over his mother's death)
    Ghoul (corpse-chewing demons)
    Grey pants (Victorian mourning customs)
    Hades (afterlives, life-in-death and death-in-life)
    Invisibility (ghosts)
    Leah (Bloom's guilt over his father's death)
  A little man (Egyptian immortality)
    The man in the macintosh (ghosts)
    Metempsychosis (theories of reincarnation)
    Mummer (death and resurrection)
    Mutes (Victorian mourning customs)
    Newbridge Avenue (Victorian mourning customs)
    Parsee tower of silence (cremation)
    Poor little Rudy (death of a child)
    Whooping cough (childhood diseases)

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Dublin businesses

Arnott’s (department store)
    Barney Kiernan’s (pub)
    Boland’s Bread (various shops)
    Brian Boroimhe House (pub)
    City Arms hotel (residential hotel)
    Clery's summer sales (department store)
    Conway's (pub)
    Dan Dawson’s speech (bakery)
    Davy Byrne’s (pub)
    D. B. C. (breads, pastries, and teas)
    Drago's (hairdressers)
    Elvery’s Elephant (sporting goods)
    Findlaters (groceries and spirits)
    Graham Lemon’s (candies)
    The Grosvenor (hotel)
    Hamilton Long’s (pharmacy)
    Hodges Figgis (books)
    Huguenots (Irish weaving industry)
    John Wyse Nolan's wife (groceries and restaurant)
    Monumental builder (funeral monuments)
    Ormond Bar (hotel, bar, and restaurant)
    Passing a pub
    Prescott's dyeworks (dyeing and cleaning)
    Red Bank oysters (restaurant)
    Shelbourne Hotel
    The Ship (pub)
    Sir James W. Mackey (seeds, bulbs, and nursery plants)
    Sweny’s (pharmacy)
    Turkish baths (public baths)
    Wisdom Hely’s (stationery and printing)
    Yeates and Son (optics)

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Dublin institutions

    All Hallows (St. Andrew's Catholic church)
    Antient Concert Rooms (concert hall)
    Ballast Office (Port and Docks board)
    Botanic Gardens (public gardens)
    Cabman’s shelter (night shelters for cabbies)
    Capel Street library (public lending libraries)
    Catholic club (Catholic gentlemen’s club)
    Dame's school (independent elementary school)
    Different churches (Catholic churches)
    Dublin Castle (imperial government center)
    Dublin Corporation (city council)
    George’s church (Protestant church)
    High School (Protestant school)
    Holles Street hospital (obstetric hospital)
    Hornblower (Trinity College)
    Huguenots (French Protestant cemetery)
    Irish Lights (maritime safety board)
    Jack Power (Royal Irish Constabulary)
    Kildare Street Club (Protestant gentlemen’s club)
    Lynam's (bookmakers)
    Marsh’s library (private library)
    The Mater hospital (hospital with hospice unit)
    Mount Jerome (Protestant cemetery)
    National library (public library)
    Prospect Cemetery (nondenominational, largely Catholic cemetery)
    Richmond Lunatic Asylum (hospital for mental illness)
    Saint Mark’s (Protestant church)
    Star of the Sea (Catholic church)

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Dublin people

    A.E. (George Russell)
    All or not at all (Oscar Wilde)
    Arbour Hill (Henry and John Sheares, died 1798)
    Bantam Lyons (Frederick Lyons?)
    Blazes Boylan (Augustus Boylan)
    Bob Doran (fictional)
    Bob Reynolds (real)
    The buck
(Oliver St. John Gogarty)
    Buck Mulligan (Oliver St. John Gogarty)
    Cochrane (Joyce's reliance on Thom's Directory)
    Conolly Norman (real)
    Corny Kelleher (Simon Kerrigan)
    Cousins (James H. Cousins and Margaret E. Cousins)
    Cranly's arm (John Francis Byrne)
    Curate (bartenders)
    Curran (Constantine Curran)
    Dan Boylan (James Daly?)
    Dan Dawson’s speech (Charles "Dan" Dawson)
    Daniel O'Connell (19th century)
    Davy Stephens (real)
    Different churches (firefighters)
    Dlugacz (Moses Dlugacz, actually lived in Trieste)
    Dominie Deasy (Francis Irwin)
    Drago's (Adolphe Drago and his widow)
    Dr. Horne (Sir Andrew Horne)
    Emily Sinico (surname derived from an Italian acquaintance)
    Father Conmee (John Conmee)
    Father Farley (Charles Farley)
    Fred Ryan (real)
    Garrett Deasy (Francis Irwin)
    Gretta Conroy (fictional)
    Haines (Richard Samuel Chevenix, 19th century linguist and archbishop)
    Hoppy Holohan (probably real)
    Hornblower (probably fictional)
    Huguenots (Dubedat surname)
    Jack Power (Tom Devin and John Power)
    Jakes M’Carthy (John "Jacques" M'Carthy)

    James Carey (19th century militant activist)
    J. C. Doyle (John C. Doyle)

    John Wyse Nolan's wife (Jennie Power)
    Kevin Egan (Joseph Casey, living in Paris)
    Koehler (Thomas Keohler)
    Leopold Bloom (John Francis Byrne, Alfred Hunter, Albert Altman)
    Lofty cone (Daniel O'Connell)
    Lord Iveagh and Lord Ardilaun (Guinness brothers)
    McCann (Francis Skeffington)
    M’Coy (Charles Chance)
    Martin Cunningham (Matthew Kane)
    Martin Murphy (William Martin Murphy)
    Maud Gonne (real)
    Moore (George Moore)
    Mrs Fleming (Mary Fleming)
    Mrs MacKernan (Elizabeth McKernan)
    Nannetti (Joseph Patrick Nannetti)
    Old Mrs Riordan (Elizabeth Hearn Conway)
    Old Mrs Thornton (Mary Thornton)
    Old Professor Goodwin (real, died 1892)
    Old Troy of the DMP (Denis Troy)
    Prescott's dyeworks (William Prescott)
    Pugnose (anonymous tram-driver)
    Quaker librarian (Thomas Lyster)
    Sir Frederick Falconer (real)
    Sizeable (policemen)
    Tom Kernan (R. J. Thornton)
    Woods (Patrick and Rosanna Woods)
    You saved men (Oliver St. John Gogarty)

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Dublin streets

   Adam Court (short blind lane off Grafton Street)
    Arbour Hill (northwest inner-city area associated with British rule and rebellion)
    Archway (many from the Georgian era)
    Ashtown (northwest suburb)
    Aungier Street (southern inner-city street where Bloom bought a window blind)
    Berkeley Street (street full of cattle)
    Bride Street (blighted street in the Liberties)
    Butt Bridge (rotating bridge near the Custom House)
    Capel Street library (central street running north from the Liffey)
    Conversion (Molesworth Street, between Dawson and Kildare)
    The Coombe (area in the Liberties)
    Denzille Street (southeastern street associated with Fenian activity)
    Dolphin’s Barn (far southwestern part of inner city where the Blooms met)
    Donnybrook (southeastern suburb, a little beyond the Grand Canal)
    Dorset Street (north-side, site of Bloom’s walk to purchase a kidney)
    Dunphy’s corner (north-side, site of a sharp right turn on the way to the cemetery)
    Moore (Ely Place, east of St. Stephen's Green)
    Esprit de corps (Eustace Street, near Temple Bar in the center of town)
    Flat Dublin voices (the Liberties)
    Huguenots (cemetery near St. Stephen's Green)
    Irishtown (poor east-side suburb near the bay, between Ringsend and Sandymount)
    James’s Gate (Kernan’s route from the western edge of Dublin to the river)
    Joe Chamberlain (course followed by people protesting Chamberlain's visit)
    Kingsbridge station (King's Bridge in the western part of town)
    Leahy’s Terrace (street in Sandymount ending in steps down to the beach)
    Leeson Park (street in southern suburbs, just beyond the Grand Canal)
    The Liberties (large district in southwest inner city)
    Lime Street (south of the Liffey, where Bloom contemplates two poor children)
    Loopline Bridge (elevated railway tracks from Westland Row station to Amiens station)
    Mantrap (spot on Purdon Street)
    Moore Street (central street north of the Liffey known for large street markets)
    Nelson’s Pillar (central location, tram hub)
    Newbridge Avenue (street in Sandymount where funeral procession starts)
    Nighttown (Monto, the red-light district of Dublin in the northeast inner city)
    O’Connell Street (grand central boulevard north of the Liffey)
    Pigeonhouse (the South Wall breakwater at the mouth of the Liffey)
    Pleasant old times (streets in southern part of inner city where the Blooms lived early on)
    Rathmines (southern suburb, a little beyond the Grand Canal)
    Ringsend (poor east-side suburb near the bay, between Irishtown and the Liffey)
    Rogerson’s Quay (southern quay where Bloom is first seen on way to Westland Row)
    Serpentine Avenue (street in Sandymount, on Dublin’s southeastern edge)
    Seven Eccles Street (the Blooms’ home on the northern edge of inner city)
    Sewage (construction of sewer drains leading to treatment plant in Ringsend)
    Terenure (southwestern suburb a little beyond the Grand Canal)
    Threemaster (the South Wall, a long stone breakwater projecting into the bay)
    To Artane (Conmee’s route from Mountjoy Square to Artane)
    To the right (Bloom’s circular route to and from Westland Row)
    Townsend Street (on Bloom’s way from Lime Street to Westland Row)
    Vico Road (coastal road between Dalkey and Killiney)
    Westland Row (site of tea shop, post office, hotel, train station, church, and pharmacy)
    What way (route of the funeral procession)
    Yeates and Son (Nassau Street, Grafton Street, and College Green)

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English literature

    As others see us (Burns' On a Louse)
    Ask nothing more of me (Swinburne's The Oblation)
    Be as gods (Milton's Paradise Lost, book 9)
    Before born (The Wanderer, Ælfric's Homilies)
    Caliban (Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray)
    Caoc O’Leary (John Keegan's Caoch the Piper)
    The castle was opened (Mandeville's Travels)
    Cloacal obsession (H. G. Wells' review of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man)
    Collar of gold (Thomas Moore's Let Erin Remember the Days of Old)
    Contransmagnific (James Mangan)
    Country Churchyard (Gray's Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard)
    Cracked lookingglass (Wilde's The Decay of Lying)
    Dame's school (Dickens' Great Expectations)
    Dark and evil days (John Ingram's The Memory of the Dead)
    Darkness (Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Henry Vaughan)
    Daughters of memory (Blake's A Vision of the Last Judgment, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell)
    Don Quixote (Twain's Huckleberry Finn, Sterne's Tristram Shandy, Patrick O'Brian's sea novels)
    Douglas Hyde (Love Songs of Connaught)
    Down, sir! (Frederick Marryat's Masterman Ready, Marie Corelli's Sorrows of Satan)
    Dundrum press (Yeats' In the Seven Woods)
    Epiphanies (Oliver Gogarty's As I Was Walking Down Sackville Street)
    Equine faces (Swift's Gulliver's Travels, book 4)
    Everyman (Everyman)
    Flying Dutchmen (Tom Taylor's Vanderdecken)
    Fortyfoot hole (Flann O’Brien's At Swim-Two-Birds)
    Found drowned (Dickens' Bleak House)
Fred Ryan (literary magazine Dana)
    Furious dean (Swift's Gulliver's Travels, book 4)
    Gas: then solid: then world (Robert Ball's The Story of the Heavens, John Nichol, William Whewell)
    Ghoststory (Webster's The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi)
    The grandeur that was Rome (Poe's To Helen)
    Great sweet mother (Swinburne's The Triumph of Time)
    Haines’s chapbook (Congreve, Shaw, Wilde, etc.)
    Heathen Chinee (Bret Harte's The Heathen Chinee)
    Heaventree (John Flavel Mines' The Heroes of the Last Lustre)
    Hellenise it (Matthew Arnold's Culture and Anarchy)
    Her courts (Dryden's Mac Flecknoe)
    He was a woman (Edward Vining's The Mystery of Hamlet)
    His backward eye (Spenser's The Faerie Queene, book 3)
    I contradict myself (Whitman's Song of Myself)
    Ikey Mo (Alan Collins' Alva's Boy)
    Japhet (Frederick Marryat's Japhet, in Search of a Father)
    Joachim (Yeats' The Tables of the Law)
    The Joe Miller (Joe Miller's Jests)
    John Casey
    Joking Jesus (Gogarty's The Song of the Cheerful (but slightly sarcastic) Jesus)
    Knocking his sconce (Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson)
    Koehler (Thomas Keohler)
    Lead, kindly light (Cardinal Newman)
    Leah (John Daly's Leah, the Forsaken)
    Listed feet (Bennett's The Old Wives' Tale, Forester's Lieutenant Hornblower, Wilde's The Canterville
    Lord Byron (The First Kiss of Love, Don Juan)
    Los Demiurgos (Blake's Milton and other poems)
    Love’s bitter mystery (Yeats' The Countess Kathleen)  
    Low lintel (Henry Van Dyke's Inscriptions for a Friend's House)
    Lycidas (Milton's Lycidas)
    The man in the macintosh (Wilkie Collins' The Woman in White)
    Mananaan MacLir (George Russell's Deirdre)
    Master Goff (Sterne's Tristram Shandy)
    Matcham’s Masterstroke (Milton's Paradise Lost, book 4)
    Metempsychosis (Yeats' The Stolen Child)   
    Mity cheese (Swift's Polite Conversation)
    Naked Eve (Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica, Traherne's Centuries of Meditations)
    The Nameless One (Clarence Mangan's The Nameless One)
    Never be a saint (Johnson's Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets)
    Old England (Blake's Auguries of Innocence)
    One great goal (Tennyson's In Memoriam, Arnold's Westminster Abbey)
    Paradise and the Peri (George Moore's Paradise and the Peri)
    Parallax (Robert Ball's The Story of the Heavens)
    Pico della Mirandola (Pater's Studies in the History of the Renaissance)
    Quaker librarian (Gogarty's As I Was Going Down Sackville Street)
    Requiescat (Wilde's Requiescat)
    Row me o’er the ferry (Thomas Campbell's Lord Ullin's Daughter)
    Ruby, Pride of the Ring (Amye Reade's Ruby, a Novel)
    Saint Genevieve (Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell)
    Saint Patrick (Samuel Ferguson's The Burial of King Cormac, Gogarty's I Follow Saint Patrick)
    Sardines (Pound's The Study in Aesthetics)
    Shan Van Vocht (Alice Milligan and Anna Johnston)
    Shelbourne Hotel (George Moore's Parnell and His Island)
    Sir Peter Teazle (Sheridan's School for Scandal)
    Snotgreen (Yeats, George Moore, Douglas Hyde, Lady Gregory, Synge)
    Squashed snail (Hardy's The Dynasts)
    Strolling mort (Richard Head's The Canting Academy)
    The submerged tenth (William Booth's In Darkest England, Henry Stanley's In Darkest Africa)
    Synge (Synge's plays, Gogarty's As I Was Going Down Sackville Street)
    This side idolatry (Ben Jonson's Timber and First Folio preface)
    Titbits (Wodehouse, Conrad, Woolf, Lawrence)
    To evening lands (Shelley's Hellas)
    Trivial in itself (Dickens' David Copperfield, Great Expectations, and Bleak House)
    Utopia (More's Utopia)
    Vampire (Stoker's Dracula)
    Waters come down (Southey's The Cataract of Lodore)
    Weave the wind (Eliot's Gerontion)
    Whelps and dams (Swinburne's On the Death of Colonel Benson)
    Where was Moses? (Twain's Huckleberry Finn
    Whiteeyed kaffir (Kipling's Columns)
    Wicklowmen (Synge's In the Shadow of the Glen)
    Wilde and paradoxes (Wilde)
    Youth led by Experience (Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress)

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French literature

  Chrysostomos (Édouard Dujardin's extended soliloquy, Paul Bourget's interior monologue)
    Flyblown faces (Nana's rotted face in Émile Zola's novel)
    Gas: then solid: then world (nebular hypothesis in treatise by Pierre-Simon Laplace)
    Gautier’s prose (Louis Veuillot's criticism of Théophile Gautier's romanticism)
    German jews (Émile Zola's famous J'accuse letter on the Dreyfus affair)
    History is a nightmare (phrase in a letter by Jules Laforgue)
    Little pills (famous madeleine passage in Marcel Proust's novel)
    Michelet (Jules Michelet on the education of women)
    My father’s a bird (blasphemous humor of Gabriel Jogand-Pages, aka Léo Taxil)
    Nice name (Paul de Kock's non-pornographic novels)
    Pan’s hour (faun's revery in Stéphane Mallarmé poem)
    They understand what we say (Michel de Montaigne contemplating his cat)

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Gabler edition of Ulysses

    Blackpitts (addition of detail about Stephen’s uncle and aunt)
    Boustrophedonic cryptogram (transposition of two letters)
    Card behind the headband (addition of detail about Bloom replacing card in hat)
    Catalectic (division of one word into two)
    Conolly Norman (addition of one letter in a name)
    Cranly's arm (reversed repetition of two sentences from an earlier chapter)
    Cricket (change of one letter in a name)
    Gorse (insertion of one letter into a word)
    Great eyes (substitution of one word for another)
    Hanched (change of one letter in a word)
    Localities in Ireland (addition of detail to Bloom’s bookshelf)
    Love’s Old Sweet Song (movement of two letters from one word to another)
    Mity cheese (removal of two letters from one word)
    Nother (substitution of one letter for another in a word)
    Pain of love (addition of sentence from Aquinas)
    Pleasant old times (substitution of one letter for another in a name)
    Richmond Lunatic Asylum (addition of one letter to a name)
    Right. Right. (substitution of one word for another)
    Sir James W. Mackey (substitution of plural nouns for singulars, punctuation changes)
    Vampire (addition of period between two words)

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Games and sports

    Battling bodies (hockey as a substitute for war)
    Bob Reynolds (cyclist)
    Brass quoits (horseshoes-like pub game with sexual suggestiveness)
    Buck Mulligan (Gogarty's proficiency in swimming,
soccer, cycling, and cricket)
    Cricket (game played at Trinity's College Park)
    Cunnythumb (children's games of hopscotch and marbles in the streets)
    Even money (betting on horse races)
    Hockey (English hockey and Irish hurling)
    Jakes M’Carthy (reporting on rugby matches)
    Kildare Street Club (members playing cricket, billiards, cards)
    Sandow’s exercises (Bloom's body-building regimen)
    Vanished horses (celebrated horses from the racetrack)

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German literature

    Chrysostomos (Johann Fichte on the I and the not-I)
    Frauenzimmer (young Joyce learned German to read Gerhart Hauptmann's plays)
    German jews (Wilhelm Marr's foundational work of antisemitism)
    Leah (Salomon Mosenthal's play Deborah)
    Loud lone crack (Carl Jung hearing cracks from pieces of furniture)
    New Jerusalem (Theodor Herzl's foundational work of Zionism)

    An ounce of opium (Karl Marx on religion)

    The priest spells poverty (Max Weber on the Protestant work ethic)
    Quaker librarian (Heinrich Düntzer's Life of Goethe and Goethe's Wilhelm Meister)
    Signatures (Jakob Böhme's work of Lutheran mysticism)
    Trivial (Johann Fichte's early formulation of chaos theory)
    Übermensch (Friedrich Nietzsche's glorification of non-Christian morality)
    White button (Sigmund Freud on anal eroticism)
    Will o’ the wisp (Goethe's representation of Walpurgisnacht, aka a witches' sabbath)
    Yes I will Yes (Friedrich Nietzsche on saying yes to eternal recurrence)

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    A donkey brayed (grieving horses in Iliad 17)
    Aeolus (god of the winds in Odyssey 10)
    Aq. Dist. Fol. Laur. Virid Te (land of the lotus in Odyssey 9)
    Athos (Odysseus' old dog in Odyssey 17)
    Bright one, light one (sun god's cattle in Odyssey 12)    
    Bronze by gold (precious metals in Odyssey 4 and 7)
    Bullockbefriending (sun god's cattle in Odyssey 12)   
    Calypso (enslavement on Ogygia in Odyssey 5)
    Epi oinopa ponton (frequently used epithet for the sea)
    Great eyes (epithet for Athena)
    Hades (trip to the underworld in Odyssey 10-11)
    I am off (Telemachus leaving Ithaca in Odyssey 2)
    I know the voice (Nestor on voice of Telemachus in Odyssey 3)
    Into my eye (blinding of the Cyclops in Odyssey 9)
    Introibo (mock-epic invocation of the Muse)
    Isle of dreadful thirst (starvation on Pharos in Odyssey 4)
    Lestrygonians (encounter with giant cannibals in Odyssey 10)
    Lotus Eaters (effects of the lotus plant in Odyssey 9)
    Loud lone crack (thunderclap in Odyssey 21)
    Maybe a messenger (interventions of Athena in Odyssey 1 and 2)
    Moody brooding (Odyssey 1)
    Nestor (advice of Nestor in Odyssey 3)
    No, mother (
maturation of Telemachus in Odyssey 1)
    Orangekeyed (compound words)
    Potato (protective moly in Odyssey 10)
    Proteus (wrestling with god of the seals in Odyssey 4)
    Same wisdom (respectful interrogation of Nestor in Odyssey 2-3)
    Schemas (Homeric correspondences, deepening engagement with the Odyssey)
    Seadeath (prediction of hero's death in Odyssey 11, epithet for Proteus)
    Silent ship (Odysseus' return to Ithaca in Odyssey 13)    
    Slimmer (comparison of Calypso and Penelope in Odyssey 5)
    Telemachus (Telemachus' dilemma in Odyssey 1)
    Two strong shrill whistles (eagles in
Odyssey 2)    
    Usurper (Antinous in Odyssey 1 and 2)

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Household furnishings

    Aungier Street (blinds)
    Bogoak (anaerobically preserved wood)
    Brass quoits (Victorian brass bed)
    Chippendale chair (rococo style furniture)
    Clery's summer sales (toast rack)
    Crape (funereal door hangings)
    The Collard grand (grand piano)
    Cuckstool (toilet seat)
    Dame's school (mignonette lace)
    Footleaf (front door attachment)
    Gramophone (record player)
    He was a jew (mezuzah amulet)
    Loud lone crack (wooden table)
    Sacred Heart (religious icons)
    Seven Eccles Street (preserved front door of the house)
    Sideboard (dining room furniture)
    Spindle (spinning wheels)
    Tower livingroom (hammock, ladder)
    Trivial in itself (coal fires)
    Twelve apostles (silver spoons)   
    Where is my hat? (hallstand)

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Irish history

  All kings’ sons (ancient Irish tribal families)
    Arbour Hill (execution of men involved in the 1798 and 1916 Risings)
    Arthur Griffith (advanced nationalist, elected first President of the Free State)
    Bar MacMahon (19th century wild goose soldier who became President of France)
    Barracks (British imperial domination)
    Black and blue (rallying colors of Ulster Protestants)
    Brian Boroimhe House (11th century victory over the Vikings)
    The buck (young 18th century adventurers)
    Cloacal obsession (19th century Liberal governments)
    Columbanus (6th, 7th, 9th, and 13th century Irish monks)
    Conversion (Gladstone, Protestant proselytizing during the Famine)
    Corpses of papishes (late 18th century harassment of Catholic peasants)
    Crazy queen (personification of nationalist Ireland)
    Croppies lie down (late 18th century song taunting defeated revolutionaries)
    The Croppy Boy (mid 19th century song about late 18th century revolution)
    Dalcassians (10th and 11th century Munster kings)
    Daniel O’Connell (19th century parliamentary leader)
    Dark and evil days (mid 19th century poem about late 18th century revolution)
    Different churches (nationalist resistance in 12th, 18th, and 20th centuries)
    Do his duty (Lord Nelson’s call to battle in the battle of Trafalgar)
    Druids (ancient Irish cultural and spiritual authorities)   
    Dublin Castle (English rule from the early 13th century to the early 20th)
    The famine (mid 19th century agricultural disaster)
    Famine, plague, slaughters (disasters through the ages)
    Father Mathew (19th century temperance reformer)
    Fenians (mid 19th century revolutionaries)
    Fitzgeralds (15th and 16th century Anglo-Irish nobles)
    Flyblown faces (mid 19th century Fenian revolutionaries)
    French were on the sea (late 18th century French military assistance to Ireland)
    Green stone (England’s domination of Ireland)
    Haines’s chapbook (Irish writers entertaining English audiences)
    History is to blame (19th century Liberal governments)
    Huge key (Home Rule movement)
    Huguenots (emigration of French Protestants in 17th century)
    Immortal memory (1690 Battle of the Boyne)
    Into the army (Irishmen fighting in the British army)
    The Irish church (16th century state conversion to Protestantism)
    Isle of saints (monastic scholarship, 9th, 10th, and 12th century invasions)
    James Carey (Phoenix Park murders of 1882)
    Joe Chamberlain (English architect of the Second Boer War)
    Kevin Egan (Fenian revolutionary)
    Lochlanns (8th and 9th century Viking invaders)
    Lost Armada (late 16th century Spanish Armada)
    Malahide (the Talbot family from the 12th to the 20th century)
    Martello towers (early 19th century development of the Napoleonic Wars)
    Master Goff (Napper Tandy, hero of the 1798 rebellion)
    Meade’s timberyard (19th century Fenian plots)
    Orange lodges (Protestant fraternal organizations in Ulster)
    Planters’ covenant (16th and 17th century enrichment of Protestant landowners)
    Pluterperfect imperturbability (19th century and contemporary trade policies)
    Potato (19th century famine)
    Prelates (political positions of Irish Catholic priests and bishops)
    Pretenders (14th, 15th, and 16th century Irish claimants to political power)
    Pyrrhus (military opposition to imperial rule)
    The Russians (Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5)
    Saint Patrick (5th century Christian missionary, 3rd century Irish king)
    Seas’ ruler (British naval domination)
    Shan Van Vocht (late 18th century revolution and late 19th century journalism)
    Sir John Blackwood (late 18th century resistance to the Act of Union)
    Stuart coins (late 17th century debasement of Irish currency)
    Tory (British Conservative parliamentarians and their Irish Unionist allies)
    Twenty millions of Irish (British depopulation of Ireland and ruination of its industries)
    Two masters (imperial British state and Roman Catholic church)
    Ulster will fight (late 19th century rallying cry of Ulster Protestants)
    The Union (abolishment of the Irish Parliament in Dublin)
    Wicklowmen (18th and 19th century rebellions)
    Wild goose (17th and 18th century expatriation of Catholic nobles)
    Wild Irish (15th and 16th century term for native Irish)
    William Smith O’Brien (19th century revolutionaries)
    Woman brought sin (12th and 19th century grist for the misogynist mill)

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Irish language and customs

    Balor (king of the Formorians)
    Bank holiday (national holidays)
    Bowsy (Hiberno-English expressions)

    A caution to rattlesnakes (Hiberno-English expressions)

    Donnybrook (brawls)
    Druids (ancient high priests)
    Dundrum press (Formorian fishgods)
    Fair day (cattle drives to market towns)
    Flat Dublin voices (Hiberno-English pronunciation)
    Foostering (Hiberno-English expressions)
    Freemasons (Catholic suspicions of Masonic order)
    God is good (folk saying)
    He met Butterly (irreverent humor)
    Janey Mack (Hiberno-English expressions)
    Mananaan MacLir (Manx sea-god)
    Matcham's Masterstroke (saying about couples)
    Pishogue (Irish words and phrases)
    Potato (peasant panacea)
    Querulous brogue (Irish and Hiberno-English expressions)
    The Russians (Hiberno-English expression)
    Sacred Heart (popular devotional practice)
    Slainte (Irish and Hiberno-English words)
    Slieve (Irish word for mountain)
    Soft day (common Irish expression)
    Speak Irish (revival of the Gaelic language)
    Stranger (Irish names for the English)
    Tilly (Hiberno-English word)
    Time enough (slowness of life in the countryside)

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   Agendath Netaim (early Zionist agricultural venture)
    All of us (racial and religious prejudice)
    Altar’s horns (ritual of ancient Judaism)
    Balm of Gilead (Jewish doctor, Jews in Ireland)
    Citrons (element of the Sukkot ritual)
    Contransmagnific (Jews and Christ)
    Conversion (Rudolph Bloom's religious allegiances)
    Daniel O’Connell (Jews in Ireland)
    Dlugacz (Dublin Jews, Zionism)
    Drago's (Dublin Jews)
    Exodus (Seder service in Passover, antisemitism)
    German Jews (purported enemies of modern European nations)
    He thought that he thought (racial differences of Bloom and Stephen)
    He was a jew (ambiguous criteria of Jewishness)
    Ikey Mo (English comic strip)
    Jew merchants (medieval prohibition of usury, Jews and Christ)
    Leah (Jewish melodramatic heroine)
    Leopold Bloom (Jews on which he was modeled)
    The Messiah (Alleluia chorus accompanies Bloom’s immolation)
    New Jerusalem (Zionism)
    Nothing in black and white (antisemitic prejudice)
    Paris stock exchange (Jews in Paris)
    Passover (rituals of the Pesach holiday)
    Potato (mezuzah amulet)
    Salt cloak (ancient people)
    Samaritan (Jew assisted by Gentile)
    She never let them in (Jews in Ireland)
    Sir Frederick Falconer (racial and religious prejudice)
    Wandering Jew (Christian myth of divine curse)
    Yellow dressinggown (stigmatization of heretics)

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Joyce’s commentators

    Absurd name (Stuart Curran)
    Akasic records (Philip Herring, Theoharis Theoharis)
    All of us (Frank Budgen, Robert Adams)
    Ashplant (John Garvin)
    At four, she said (Hugh Kenner)
    Battling bodies (Robert Spoo)
    Before born (Robert Janusko)
    Boustrophedonic cryptogram (Richard Henninge)
    Braided drums (John Simpson)
    Bray (Robert Boyle)
    Brunetto (Mary Reynolds)
    Buck Mulligan (Bernard Benstock, Richard Ellmann)
    Capel Street library (Hugh Kenner)
    Card behind the headband (Peter Luch)

    The castle was opened (Robert Janusko)

    Charley, you’re my darling (Zack Bowen)
    Chrysostomos (Bernard Benstock on single words, Kevin Birmingham on interior monologue)
    Clack back (Heyward Ehrlich)
    The cold of interstellar space (Mary Reynolds)
    Collar of gold (Mabel Worthington)
    Contransmagnific (John Simpson)
    Cracked lookingglass (Stuart Gilbert)

    Culotte Rouge (John Simpson)

    Dan Dawson’s speech (Fritz Senn, Harald Beck)
    Dewy (Hugh Kenner, John Gordon)
    Dlugacz (Louis Hyman)   
    Down, sir! (Harald Beck)
    Druids (David Weir)
    Dublin Corporation (John Garvin)
    Dundrum press (Andrew Levitas)
    Epiphanies (Robert Scholes and Richard Kain)
    Eugene Stratton (David Pierce)
    Gas: then solid: then world (John Gordon)
    Haines (Gregory Downing, Sarah Davison)
    Heaventree (John Simpson)
    Horsey women (Brenda Madox)
    How many! (Mary Reynolds)
    I was just passing the time (Karen Lawrence)
    Icebergs (Senan Molony)
    Invisibility (Robert Adams)
    Joachim (Joseph Prescott)
    Joggerfry (John Simpson)
    Koehler (Eamonn Finn and John Simpson)
    Là ci darem la mano (Robert Adams)
    Language of flowers (Jaqueline Eastman)
    Lead, kindly light (Zack Bowen)
    Leahy's terrace (Clive Hart and Ian Gunn)
    Leopold Bloom (Richard Ellmann, Louis Hyman, Neil Davison, Yvonne Altman O'Connor,
            Vincent Altman O’Connor)

    The longest day (Hugh Kenner)

    Lord Byron (Walter Anderson)
    Lotus Eaters (Hugh Kenner, Ian Gunn and Clive Hart, Clive Hart)
    Love’s Old Sweet Song (Zack Bowen)
    L.s.d (Don Gifford, Hugh Kenner)
The man in the macintosh (John Gordon)
    Martha Clifford (Ellmann, John Gordon, Andrew Christensen, Senan Molony)
    Mary Ann (Mabel Worthington)
    Mrs Marion (Mark Osteen)
    Mummer (Frances Fitch)
    Mustered and bred (Fritz Senn)
    Mutoscope pictures (Katherine Mullin)
    Nacheinander (Fritz Senn)
    Naggin (Fritz Senn)
    Naked Eve (William York Tindall)
    Naked, in a womb (William York Tindall)
    Never be a saint (Anthony Burgess)
    Nighttown (Cyril Pearl)
    Number seventyfive (Ian Gunn and Clive Hart)
    Old England (Grace Eckley)
    Orangekeyed (Hugh Kenner)
    Parallax (Alan Jacobs, Marilyn French, Hugh Kenner)
    Paresis (Kathleen Ferris)
    Photo Bits (Katherine Mullin)
    Photo girl (Katherine Mullin)
    Pishogue (Paul Mahoney)
    Plumtree’s Potted Meat (Mattthew Hayward)
    Potato (Robert Merritt, Hugh Kenner)
    Put us all into it (Joseph Frank)
    Ragging (Terence Brown)
    Richmond Lunatic Asylum (Harald Beck)
    Row me o’er the ferry (Terence Killeen)
    Sandow’s exercises (Vike Plock)
    Ship of the street (Senan Molony)
    Short knock (Hugh Kenner)
    Sinbad the Sailor (Robert Adams)
    Sir Lout (Frank Budgen)
    Snotgreen (Richard Ellmann, Kevin Birmingham)
    Soul of the world (Theoharis Theoharis)
    Squashed snail (Robert Spoo)
    Stranger (Maria Tymoczko)
    Tobacco (Andy Bielenberg and David Johnson)
    Too salty (Harald Beck)
    Toothless (Richard Ellmann)
    Übermensch (Sam Slote)

    The Union (Cyril Pearl)

    United Irishman (John Nash)
    Vampire (Robert Day, Michael Seidel)
    Where is my hat? (Hugh Kenner)
    You saved men (Robert Adams)

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Joyce’s life

    Almidano Artifoni (modeled on several Italian acquaintances)
    Amor matris (repayment of his mother’s love)
    Black panther (nighttime incident in the Martello tower)
    Bray (childhood years at Martello Terrace)
    Chamber music (experience visiting a widow with Gogarty)
    Clongowes (site of early Jesuit education)
    Curran (help from a friend)
    Dog of my enemy (bitten by a dog as a child)
    Emily Sinico (named for a music teacher in Trieste)
    Haines (Oxford friend of Gogarty’s)
    Henry Blackwood Price (Irish man encountered in Trieste)
    Hoppy Holohan (letter to Nora mentions man who tried to seduce her)
    I'm not a hero (1905 letter rejecting idea of heroism)
    Irish Homestead (publication of two Dubliners stories)
    Kingsbridge Station (trip to Cork with father, Reuben J. Dodd)
    Latin quarter hat (fashion adopted in early Paris stay)
    Leopold Bloom (modeled on self, friends, and acquaintances)
    Library of Alexandria (instructions to send epiphanies to libraries)
    Matcham’s Masterstroke (sent story to a weekly paper as a joke)
    Mrs MacKernan (rented a room from her in 1904)
    Mullingar (trip with family members at age 18)
    My father’s voice (John Joyce and the Gouldings)
    Newspapers (writing for the papers, as Bloom recommends)
    Norwegian captain (story that John Joyce liked to tell)
    Pain of love (beginning of life with Nora)
    Plump shadowed face (hunger in Paris)

    The priest spells poverty (spendthrift habits inherited from father)

    Read them in the original (facility with languages)
    Repent! (behavior in response to his mother’s death)
    Richie Goulding (mother’s brother and his wife Sara)
    Ringsend (first date with Nora)
    Salt bread (thinking of self as a writer-in-exile)
    Stephen Dedalus (autobiographical persona created in A Portrait)
    Titbits (submission of story to paper in high school years)
    Toothless (neglect of teeth pre-Nora)
    Unclean loins (escape from Catholic association of sex and sin)
    U.P.: Up (use of the expression in a 1928 letter)
    White button (love for Nora's arse)
    You are my darling (Protestant girl he knew in childhood)
    You have eaten all (self-pitying hunger in Paris)

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Joyce’s other works

    Chamber Music

    Chamber music (proposal of title, discovery of its ambiguity)
    Fred Ryan ("My love is in a light attire")
    Waters come down (veiled reference to title in Molly's chamberpot)

    Critical Writings

    Bayed about (image of self as deer in “The Holy Office”)
    Daily Express (21 review essays published in this paper)
    Ecce homo (praise of Munkácsy's painting in “Royal Hibernian Academy ‘Ecce Homo’”)
    Green stone (gift from pope to English king in “Ireland, Island of Saints and Sages”)
    Isle of saints (reference to “Island of Saints and Sages”)
    Lost armada (wrecked ships in "The Mirage of the Fisherman of Aran")
    One great goal (eternal human truths in "Drama in Life")
    Read them in the original (Ireland-Greece comparison in “Island of Saints and Sages”)
    Salt bread (inspiration to become a European writer in “Ibsen’s New Drama”)
    Spirit of man (affirmation of changeless human realities in “Drama and Life”)


    Bob Doran (principal character in “The Boarding House”)
    Cousins (source of Gretta Conroy's name)
    Cracked lookingglass (defense of book to Grant Richards)
    Daily Express (paper for which Gabriel Conroy writes in The Dead)
    Do his duty (portrayal of alcoholism in “Counterparts”)
    Emily Sinico (woman who dies in “A Painful Case”)
    Epiphanies (intention for the whole book)
    Evening Mail (announcement of Mrs. Sinico's death in "A Painful Case")
    Gretta Conroy (Gabriel Conroy's wife in The Dead)
    Hoppy Holohan (concert organizer in “A Mother”)
    Into the choir (Kate Morkan's protest in The Dead)
    Irish Homestead (paper that published “Sisters” and "Eveline")
    Jack Power (character in "Grace")
    King Billy's horse (Gabriel's story of Johnny in The Dead)
    Like a cock's wattles (simile in "The Boarding House")
    Martin Cunningham (character in “Grace”)

    M’Coy (minor character in “Grace”)

    No thoughts (deferred publication of the book)
    Paresis (mentions of insanity in “An Encounter” and “Eveline”)
    Ragging (symbolism of details)
    Silent ship (search for Ulysses in “An Encounter”)
    Snotgreen (Gabriel Conroy's responses to the Irish Revival in The Dead)
    Star of the Sea (site of Tom Kernan's marriage in “Grace”)
    The stream of life (Maritana in "A Mother" and The Dead)
    Tom Kernan (principal character in “Grace”)
    Übermensch (books by Nietzsche owned by James Duffy in “A Painful Case”)


    Flying Dutchmen (echo of Wagner in Richard Hand's desire to fall from a cliff)
    Gretta Conroy (anxiety about spousal infidelity)

    Finnegans Wake

    Barnacle goose (sleeping corpse)
    Bronze by gold (John Cage's Roaratorio)
    Dublin Corporation (allusions to Dublin mayors and city government)
    Flying Dutchmen (borrowing from Wagner in story of the Norwegian captain)
    Furious dean (Jonathan Swift and his two women)
    Hades (life in death)

    A little man (Egyptian Book of the Dead)

    Little pills (eternal present of the past)
    M'Carthy took the floor (fighting Irishmen)
    'Mid mossy banks (metaplasm)
    Morrice (Joyce's reply to hearing the book called "trivial")
    Mother Slipperslapper (fear that corpse might wake up)
    Naggin (mentioned in the song of the title)
    Norwegian captain (20 pp. version of the story in 2.3)
    One great goal (Viconian historiography)
    Pigeonhouse (terrible prongs at the end of the book)
    Pubs (Mullingar House in Chapelizod)

    The sacred pint (Adam and Eve's tavern and church)

    Saint Patrick (Patrick and the archdruid, sevenhued rainbow)
    Sinbad the Sailor (half-dreaming anticipations of the late book)
    Sing a song of sixpence (children's stories and adult concerns)
    Soul of the world (references to Giordano Bruno)
    Speak Irish (revenge on the English language)
    Stranger (protagonist as outsider)
    Vico Road (Viconian historiography)
    Wicklow Mountains (Saint Kevin)
    Writing on the wall (mene mene tekel upharsin)
    Yes I will Yes (similarities of endings of Ulysses and Finnegans Wake)

    A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

    Absurd name (Dedalus as echo of Ovid's artificer and his son Icarus, association with cattle)
    Aquinas (ordering mind in part 1)
    As others see us (mother picking lice off children)
    Awfully holy (turn to religion in parts 3 and 4)
    Bayed about (silence, exile, and cunning in part 5)
    Bray (Christmas dinner scene in part 1)
    Chamber music (fusion of the ethereal and the carnal in part 5)
    Clongowes (childhood education from age 6 through high school)
Communion (the ciborium)
Cranly’s arm (interaction with Cranly in part 5)
    Dewy (the villanelle in part 5)
    Equine faces (Temple and Campbell in part 5)
    Ex nihilo (accused of heresy by teacher in part 2)
    Houses of decay (soul's flight in part 5)
    I’m not a hero (ironic treatment of protagonist, rejection of heroism)
    Introibo (rejecting priesthood for art in part 5)
    Invisibility (theoretical ideal of dramatic writing in part 5)
    Jesuits (education by this clerical order)
    Kidneys were in his mind (description of hunger at beginning of part 3)
    Kingsbridge Station (taking train to Cork with his father in part 2)
    Lord Byron (defending his poetry to bullying classmates in part 2)
    McCann (political discussion in part 5)
    Monthly wash (pushed into cesspool in part 1)
    National Library (watching birds from the portico steps in part 5)
    No thoughts (publication of the novel in The Egoist)
    Noserag (insistent repetition of words and phrases)
    Old Mrs Riordan (governess in part 1)
    Pain of love (love poem to E. C.)
    Paresis (incident of madness in part 5)
    Pickmeup (Davin's story of attempted seduction in part 5)
    Ragging (composition of prose vignettes)
    The Russians (petition for universal peace in part 5)
    Server (stated preference for minor offices in part 4)
    Shan Van Vocht (image of Ireland as an old sow in part 5)
    Speak Irish (impatience with Irish language craze in part 5)
    Squashed lice (picking a louse from collar in part 5)
    Stephen Dedalus (development of autobiographical persona)
    Telemachus (connection between end of the novel and beginning of Ulysses)
    Twining stresses (the villanelle in part 5)
    Unclean loins (Catholic attitudes toward sexuality)
    Waters come down (artist as invisible god in part 5)

    Stephen Hero

    Brunetto (attack on the Jesuits in chapter 18)
    Epiphanies (origin of the impulse to compose vignettes)
    I’m not a hero (ironic intention of the title)
    McCann (fuller portrait than in A Portrait)
    Mullingar (scenes based on time spent in the town)
    Pickmeup (nickname "Stevie" used in the book)

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Making Ulysses   

    Aeolus (rhetorical modes and devices)
    Almost human (rhetorical figures)
    At four, she said (lacunae)
    Before born (literary prose style)
    The best historians (literary prose styles)
    Bingbang (rhetorical figures)
    Boosing shed (rhetorical figures)
    Broadcloth back (rhetorical figures)
    Bronze by gold (jocoseriousness)
    Buck Mulligan (free indirect style)
    Call it, wait (rhetorical figures)
    Calypso (schemas, narrative ordering)
    The castle was opened (literary prose styles)
    Child bit by a bellows (rhetorical figures)
    Chrysostomos (interior monologue)
    Clamn dever (rhetorical figures)
    Clever, very (rhetorical figures)
    Come on! (rhetorical figures)
    Composition of place (composition procedure)
    Co-ome thou lost one (rhetorical figures)
    The crozier and the pen (rhetorical figures)
    Dance of the hours (narrative sequence)
    Did I not take it up? (lacunae)
    Dullthudding barrels (rhetorical figures)
    Duumvirate (Latinate expressions)
    Epiphanies (prose vignettes)
    Everyman (literary prose styles)
    Far and wide (rhetorical figures)
    Feetstoops (rhetorical figures)
    Great eyes (representation of eyes)
    Heartburn on your arse (rhetorical figures)
    He looked (though he was not) (rhetorical figures)
    High grade ha (truncated words)
    I, I, and I (Aristotelian entelechy)
    Imperial, imperious, imperative (rhetorical figures)
    In the heart (rhetorical figures)
    Invisibility (authorial presence)
    It is meet to be here (rhetorical figures)
    It wasn't me, sir (rhetorical figures)
    It was revealed to me (rhetorical figures)
    I will not say (rhetorical figures)
    The Joe Miller (rhetorical figures)
    Kidneys were in his mind (free indirect style)
    Knees, legs, boots (rhetorical figures)
    The lamb and the cat and the dog (rhetorical figures)
    Lestrygonians (initial style)
    Like a cock's wattles (rhetorical figures)
    Local colour (compositional procedure)
    Mass for Pope Marcellus (musical inspiration)
    'Mid mossy banks (rhetorical figures)
    A mighty people (rhetorical figures)
    Mockery (jocoseriousness)
    The moon (rhetorical figures)
    Morrice (intricate conceits)
    Much, much to learn (rhetorical figures)
    The Nameless One (first-person narration)
    Nannan (rhetorical figures)
    Neck fat neck (rhetorical figures)
    Never you fret (rhetorical figures)
    No mistakes (life choices)
    Nor no nothing (rhetorical patterning)
    Noserag (insistent repetion, compound words, prose poems)
    Old ancient ancestors (rhetorical figures)
    Only for... (rhetorical figures)
    On our shore he never set it (rhetorical figures)
    Parable of the Plums (rhetorical figures)
    Parallax (seeing from different angles)
    Print anything (censorship)
    Pulses beating (bodily organs in schemas)
    Ragging (prose vignettes)
    Retrospective arrangement (mnemonic ordering)
    Schemas (design for the different chapters)
    See it in your face (rhetorical figures)
    Seems to be (rhetorical figures)
    Shuttered cottage (prose vignettes)
    Slowed, shunted, changed (rhetorical figures)
    Strong weakness (rhetorical figures)
    Sudden-at-the-moment (rhetorical figures)
    Toad eyes (characters interacting with the narration)
    They had no idea (rhetorical figures)
    Trivial in itself (first-person narration, significance of trivial things)
    Twining stresses (poetic sound patterning)
    Vast, I allow: but vile (rhetorical figures)
    Venus (static and kinetic art)
    Very little perceptive (literary prose styles)
    Wax and rosewood (tinkering with words)
    With a heart and a half (rhetorical figures)
    Working away, tearing away (rhetorical figures)
    Yes I will yes (rhetorical figures)
    You know how? (rhetorical figures)
    Youth led by Experience (rhetorical figures)

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Medicine and illness

    Aconite (analgesic)
    Alchemists (elixir of life)
    Anastomosis (connections between tubular structures)
    Aq. Dist. Fol. Laur. Te Virid (pharmaceutical ingredients)
    Bachache pills (kidney disease, alcoholism)
    Bad gas (miasma theory of disease)
    Balm of Gilead (quack remedy)
    Barney Kiernan’s (mental illness facility)
    Benedictine and Chartreuse (elixir of life)
    Bowl of bitter waters (vomiting)
    Dr. Horne (obstetric physician)
    Dustbuckets (diarrhea)
    Flyblown faces (smallpox)
    Foot and mouth disease (viral infection)
    Foundation stone (Parnell's loss of health)
    Hokypoky (bacteria in ice cream)
    Holles Street hospital (National Maternity Hospital)
    Hoopsa boyaboy (midwife’s cry)
    Kish lightship (nausea)

    The Mater hospital (hospital with hospice unit)

    Old Mrs Thornton (midwife)
    Only one skin (hemophilia)
    Paddy Dignam (alcoholism, heart attack)
    Paresis (tertiary syphilis)
    Piles (hermorrhoids)
    Saint Vitus’ dance (neurological disorder)
    Seaside girls (nausea)
    Serum and virus (bacterial and viral immunology)
    Sewage (waterborne illnesses)
    She knew at once (congenital cardiac defect)
    Sir John Gray (waterborne illnesses)
    Sir Peter Teazle (dementia)
    Sir Philip Crampton (surgeon)
    Smallpox (viral infection, vaccination)
    Sweny’s (pharmacy)
    Swung lourdily (midwife)
    U.P.: Up (terminal illness)
    Venereal disease (spread by prostitution)
    Whooping cough (childhood diseases)

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    Akasic records (Theosophical doctrine of a mystical universal memory)
    Aristotle (Aristotelian materialism and spiritualism)
    Averroes and Maimonides (reconciling Aristotelian philosophy with religious truth)
    Candescent (Aristotle's comparison of the immortal "active intellect" to light)
    Coloured signs (Berkeley's idealistic response to Cartesian and Lockean empiricism)
    Cousins (two Dublin Theosophists)
    Cypherjugglers (Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry)
    Darkness (Nietzschean transvaluation of Christianity, mystical cosmologies)
    Dogsbody (life moving toward death, decomposition, and reconstitution)
    Freemasons (the Masonic order)
    Hyperborean (Nietzschean freedom from contemporary morality)
    Ideas and sensations (18th century empiricism of John Locke and David Hartley)
    Ineluctable (Aristotelian empiricism and Cartesian skepticism)
    Infinite possibilities (potentiality and actuality in Aristotle's Metaphysics)
    Los Demiurgos (creator of the visible world)
    Loud lone crack (divine presence manifested in sharp sound)
    The man in the macintosh (belief in ghosts)
    Master of others (Hegel's idea of overcoming the master-slave binary)
    Nothing in black and white (ritual oath of Freemasons)
    One great goal (linear teleological history versus circular unchanging history)
    Pico della Mirandola (Pico's syncretic theology and Hindu idea of the Great Year)
    A shout in the street (divine presence manifested in sharp sound)
    Signatures (Jakob Böhme's mystical and magical treatise)
    Soul of the world (Bruno's Neoplatonic idea of a spiritually interconnected cosmos)  
    Sunphone (telepathic communication)
    Trivial in itself (the universally transformative effects of ordinary events)
    Übermensch (Nietzschean overcoming of Christian ethics and metaphysics)
    Vibration (telepathic evangelism)
    Vico Road (Vico's idea of transforming the world in one's own image)
    Yes I will Yes (Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence)

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Money and economics

    Bantam Lyons (racetrack betting)
    Blackpitts (blighted streets)
    Bride Street (blighted street in the Liberties)
    Capel Street library (guarding against loss of books)
    Cochrane (records of tenements)
    Coign of vantage (bill collectors)
    Conversion (exploiting poverty for religious proselytizing)

    The Coombe (impoverished part of the Liberties)

    Coronation Day (play on coins called sovereigns)
    Cousins (Stephen's debts)
    Curran (Stephen's debts)
    Dosshouse (cheap room rentals)
    Even money (racetrack betting)
    Fred Ryan
(Stephen's debts)
    Gold Cup (racetrack betting)
    He made money (Shakespeare as capitalist entrepreneur)
    Horsey women (Anglo-Irish landed gentry)
    Increase and multiply (enforced reproduction)
    Kidneys of wheat (anti-clericalism)
    Kildare Street Club (obscene wealth)
    Kinch (borrowing money)

    The Liberties (impoverished district)

    Lime Street (tenement children)
    L.s.d. (British currency units and slang names for coins and bills)
    Lynam's (racetrack betting)
    McCann (Stephen's debts)
    Money (riches to rags)
    Mrs MacKernan
(Stephen's debts)
(Stephen's debts)
    Number eighty (urban blight)
    Owe nothing (Stephen’s ruinous debts)

    The priest spells poverty (Catholicism versus Protestantism)

    Scottish Widows (Paddy Dignam’s life insurance policy)
    Shelbourne Hotel (hotel for the rich)
    Short knock (crafty buying and selling)
    Slumming (slum tourism)
    Squashed lice (affliction of poor children)
    Stuart coins (debasement of Irish currency in the late 17th century)
    The submerged tenth (the urban underclass)
    Tom Kernan (dodging debts to a grocer)
    Twelve apostles (Deasy's privileged upbringing)

    The Union (historical cause of poverty)

    White button (Freud on feces and money)
    Yeates and Son (foreign trade)

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Music for concert hall and church

    A cenar teco (Mozart's opera Don Giovanni)
    All’erta! (Verdi's opera Il Trovatore)
    Antient concert rooms (performance space in Dublin)
    Ashplant (Wagner's operas Die Walküre and Die Götterdämmerung)
    Blowing the bellows (church organs)
    Chamber music (Elizabethan song Greensleeves)
    Dance of the hours (Ponchielli's opera La Gioconda)
    Exodus (Gregorian chant)
    Flying Dutchmen (Wagner's opera Der Fliegende Holländer)
    Là ci darem la mano (Mozart's opera Don Giovanni)
    Lead, kindly light (Cardinal Newman hymn)
    Light behind her (Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta Trial by Jury)
    Love’s Old Sweet Song (1884 English and Irish art song by Clifton Bingham and James Molloy)
    Martha (Flotow's opera Martha)
    Mass for Pope Marcellus (Palestrina mass)

    The Messiah (Händel oratorio)

    Old Professor Goodwin (organist, keyboard accompanist)
    Repent! (Mozart's opera Don Giovanni)
    Respectable gondoliers (Gilbert and Sulllivan's operetta The Gondoliers)
    Sir Lout (Wagner's opera Das Rheingold)  
    Stabat Mater (Rossini setting of hymn for chorus and soloists)
    The stream of life (William Wallace's opera Maritana)
    Ulster Hall (performance space in Belfast)      
    What kind of voice is it? (singing of castrati)                                    

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   Absentminded beggar (second Boer War)
    Aeolus (section headings reminiscent of newspaper headlines)
    Child bit by a bellows (newsboy's fanciful headlines reported in newspaper article)
    Circulation (newspaper sales, printing presses)
    Concentration camp (second Boer War)
    Daily Express (daily paper with strongly unionist slant)
    Dan Dawson’s speech (recent speech printed in full in newspaper)
    Evening Mail (small-circulation daily paper with strongly unionist slant)
    Evening Telegraph (daily paper with moderately nationalist slant)
    Found drowned (stock phrase in newspapers)
    Freeman’s Journal (daily paper with moderately nationalist slant)
    General Slocum (15 June 1904 New York City disaster)
    German jews (Édouard Drumont's antisemitic newspaper)
    Henry Flower (1900 Dublin murder)
    Homerule sun (Freemans Journal logo)
    Icebergs (Titanic disaster)
    Into the army (second Boer War)
    Irish Homestead (weekly paper with agricultural slant)
    Irish Independent (medium-circulation daily paper hostile to labor unions)
    Irish Times (large-circulation daily paper with moderately unionist slant)
    Jakes M’Carthy (sports reporter)
    Kevin Egan (New York Herald typesetting)
    The man in the macintosh (creation of alternate realities)
    Margate strand (editorials against mixed bathing)
    Martha Clifford (1900 Dublin murder)   
    Maud Gonne (Lucien Millevoye, editor of La Patrie)
    Moore (1903 announcement of conversion to Protestantism)
    Newsboys (poor children who sold newspapers in late 19th century and early 20th)
    Newspapers (sixteen Irish papers and Italian Piccolo dela Sera)
    Royal Dublins (second Boer War)
    The Russians (Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5)
    Sham squire (18th century publisher Francis Higgins)
    Ship of the street (Titanic disaster)
    Sjambok (second Boer War)
    Titbits (magazine of low-brow general culture with extracts from other papers)
    Ulysses Grant (1878 world tour)
    United Irishman (weekly paper with strongly nationalist slant)
    Unweeded garden (1898 Dublin murder)
    Vibration (Thomas Jefferson Shelton in 1890s and early 1900s)

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    Buddha their god (Burmese statue of reclining Buddha)
    Celestials (Chinese people)

    Dead Sea (Palestine)
    The far east (fantasy of Ceylon)

    Ghoul (Arabian myth of corpse-chewers)

    Heathen Chinee (ace Chinese card-player)

    Houri (Persian and Arabic idea of beautiful women in Paradise)

    A little man (Egyptian soul-principles)

    Metempsychosis (Indian religion)
    Mohammed (Persian and Arabic stories of his benevolence toward cats)
    Morrice (Moorish mathematics and dance)
    Parsee tower of silence (sky-burials in Persia and India)
    Same dream (Arab caliph Harun al-Rashid)
    Tinkers (called gypsies after Egypt, actually from northern India)
    Too salty (Polynesian cannibals)
    Track of the Sun (Arab souks, many other Asian locales)
    Turkish baths (Turkish and Arabic public baths)

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Other literatures

    All or not at all (Henrik Ibsen's Brand)
    Call it, wait (Virgil's first Eclogue)
Delta of Cassiopeia (Tycho Brahe's On the New Star and Giordano Bruno's On the Infinite
        Universe and Worlds
    Don Quixote (Cervantes' Don Quixote)
    Dundrum press (Mabinogion and Upanishads)
    Houses of decay (Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron)  
    Isosceles triangle (Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man and Thomas Aquinas' Summae)    
    Local colour (Georg Brandes' William Shakespeare)
    Metempsychosis (Giordano Bruno's On the Infinite Universe and Worlds)    
    Naggin (Cervantes' Don Quixote)
    Soul of the world (Giordano Bruno's Cause, Principle, and Unity)
    Vico Road (Benedetto Croce's Aesthetic)

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Other lives

    Absurd name (Dedalus as birdlike flyer, Stephen as sacrificial bull)

    Athos (Bloom's father's dog and Odysseus' dog)
    Barnacle goose (fish feeding on man's body, barnacles that become geese)
    Bayed about (Stephen's image of himself as a deer hunted by dogs)
    Beef to the heels (attractive and unattractive women both imaged as heifers)
    Black panther (Haines' nightmarish self-projection)
    Bluebottle (bee or fly that stung or bit Bloom)
    Botanic Gardens (Bloom's self-association with mimosa, edelweiss, and potato)
    Brian Boroimhe House (cattle for the conqueror)
    A buck, trippant (dog as hare, deer, bear, wolf, cow, fox, leopard, panther; sea as walrus, snake)
    Bullockbefriending (Stephen's association with bulls)
    Cascara sagrada (tree bark used as laxative)
    Cattlemarket (Bloom's sympathy for doomed animals)
    City Arms hotel (Bloom's job at cattle market, cat's home in hotel)
    Cockles (digging clams on the tide flats)
    Crouched in flight (Stephen seeing dog's fearful retreat, echoing it in his own action)
    Dog of my enemy (biting dogs and vicious human beings)
    Dogsbody (dogs dying and living, obeying and attacking, dissolving and deifying)

    A donkey brayed (prediction of rain, echo of the Iliad)
    Down, sir! (dogs addressed as humans)
    Feather fans (birds' feathers, wings, and bodies displayed on people's clothes and hats)
    Floating flower (lotus plants)
    Foot and mouth disease (threat to the Irish cattle industry)
    Ghoststory (fox burying his grandmother)
    Ghoul (hyena-like devourer of human flesh, rat in the graveyard)
    Gold Cup (horses in the Gold Cup race))
    Gorse (furze bushes with sharp spines)
    Heaventree (mythological trees)
    Language of flowers (using flowers to communicate romantic intentions)
    Lap, lapin (Patrice Egan's rabbit-like lapping of milk)
    Lestrygonians (killing animals to eat, hungry gulls)

    A little man (bat as the human soul departing its body)

    Mananaan MacLir (horses in the waves)
    Mrkgnao (cat language)
    Old England (robin redbreast in a cage puts all heaven in a rage)
    Pantomime (giant rocs in the valley of diamonds)
    Potato (potato as preservative against plague and pestilence)
    Sardines (silvery fish as beautiful as the finest human lady)
    Seal’s head (human swimmer's head indistinguishable from seal's)
    Seem to like it (toxoplasmosis in mice and rats)
    Serum and virus (inoculating horses and cattle against disease)
    Ship of the street (horse pulling street-sweeping machine)
    Squashed lice (human bodies home to insects)
    Squashed snail (weak human bodies compared to snails)
    They understand what we say (communication between cats and humans)
    Unweeded garden (garden weeds and marsh rushes)
    Vampire (bats as image of humans' predatory sexuality)
    Vanished horses (high-class race horses)

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Places abroad

    Bar MacMahon (Paris bar, details unknown)
    Chaussons (morning and noontime on Paris streets)
    Culotte Rouge (risqué magazines that Stephen has brought back from Paris)
    Flyblown faces (Kevin Egan's Montmartre)
    Lap, lapin (Patrice Egan lapping warm milk in a Paris café)
    Margate strand (English swimming resort with scandalous exposures)
    Moore (painters and writers in Paris)
    Paris stock exchange (Jews in the temple of money)
    Prix de Paris (annual French horse race with huge purse)
    Saint Genevieve (Parisian library)
    Vampire (Parisian sex show)

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Places in Ireland

  Bray (coastal town south of Dublin)
    Bullock harbour (small harbor between Sandycove and Dalkey)
    Clongowes (school in County Kildare)
    County Leitrim (small rural county in the northwest)
    Donnybrook (suburb of Dublin, site of the famous fair)
    Dublin Bay (terminus of the River Liffey)
    Fortyfoot hole (Sandycove swimming spot)
    Giddy to look (viewing platform atop Nelson’s Pillar)
    Greystones (fishing village and seaside resort)
    Gulfstream (ocean currents moving toward Ireland)
    Joggerfry (western islands in County Mayo and County Galway)
    Kingstown Harbour (huge concrete jetties at Dun Laoghaire)
    Localities in Ireland (various ones in the west, southwest, east, and northeast)
    Lough Owel (lake in County Westmeath)
    Malahide (town north of Dublin with an ancestral castle)
    Midland bogs (raised peat bogs in the Midlands and blanket bogs in the west)
    Mullingar (seat of County Westmeath and present home of Bloom’s daughter)
    Old Kilkenny (seat of County Kilkenny and site of famous cathedral and castle)
    Saint Mary’s Abbey (ruins of ancient abbey in Dublin)
    Saint Patrick (Croagh Patrick, Ballykinlar, Saint Patrick’s Purgatory)
    Sir Lout (Giant’s Causeway in County Antrim)
    Slieve (mountains in various counties)
    Tower (Martello tower at Sandycove)
    Vico Road (scenic residential road in Dalkey)
    Wicklow Mountains (Featherbed, Glencree, Glendalough, Poulaphouca falls, Sugarloaf,
            Roundwood reservoir)

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Plays and players

    Eugene Stratton (Negro impersonator)
    Flying Dutchmen (Tom Taylor stage play)
    Gaiety Theatre (important theater, four famous performers)
    He was a woman (actresses playing male parts in Shakespeare)
    Leah (American version of German stage play, actresses who starred in it)
    Mananaan MacLir (play staged by the Irish National Theatre group)
    Martin Harvey (stage idol, star of The Only Way)
    Mummer (form of popular street theater)
    Music hall (venues for popular songs)
    Pantomime (popular low-brow stage acts)
    Punched tickets (English version of French stage play)
    Queen’s Theatre (Dublin theater presenting middle- to low-brow works
    Sinbad the Sailor (pantomime performed around Christmas)
    Synge (John Millicent Synge’s dramatic work)
    Theatre Royal (one of Dublin’s two principal theaters)
    Trapeze (circus performances)
    Turko the Terrible (pantomime performed around Christmas)
    Whiteeyed kaffir (G. H. Chirgwin’s minstrel act)

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Popular songs and rhymes

    Boys of Kilkenny (traditional Irish song)
    Break the news to her (1890s song, two versions by Charles Harris and Edward Marks)
    Charley, you’re my darling (traditional Scottish folk tune, words by Carolina Oliphant)
    Coronation Day (anonymous 1902 English drinking song)
    Croppies lie down (anonymous northern Irish song ca. 1800)

    The Croppy Boy (1840s Irish ballad by William McBurney, aka Caroll Malone)

    Flowers in May (1902 American song by Dan Sullivan)
    Goodbye, Sweetheart, Goodbye (1860s English song by John Hatton and Jane Williams)
    Graham Lemon's (God Save the King)
    Hannigan’s Aunt (1892 Irish song Mat Hannigan's Aunt by Percy French)

    The heathen Chinee (song versions of Bret Harte's The Heathen Chinee)

    The house that Jack built (nursery rhyme incorporated in pantomimes)

    Invisibility (song from Turko the Terrible pantomime)
    Janey Mack (Irish nursery rhyme)
    Jingle (1857 American song Jingle Bells by James Pierpont)
    Licking the saucer clean (Jack Sprat, Tom Tucker, I’m a Little Teapot)
    Lost in the wood (story from ballads and nursery rhymes and pantomimes, late 19th century music hall         song Oh Please, Mister P'liceman by E. Andrews)
    Mary Ann (anonymous Irish song)

    M'Carthy took the floor (1888 music hall song by Robert Martin)

    Misty Morning (Mother Goose nursery rhyme)
    Mother Grogan (anonymous Irish song Ned Grogan)
    Mother Slipperslapper (traditional English folk song Fox Went Out on a Chilly Night)
    My bold Larry (Irish ballad Bold Traynor O or The Night before Larry was Stretched)
    None to me (The Miller of Dee, 18th century English folk song)
    Passover (traditional Aramaic song Chad Gadya)
    Riddle me (traditional English riddle)
    Rocky road to Dublin (anonymous 19th century Irish song)
    Sacred Heart (Italian tongue-twister for children)
    Seas’ ruler (Rule, Britannia!, 1740 British song by Thomas Arne and James Thomson)
    Seaside girls (1899 English song Those Lovely Seaside Girls by Harry Norris)
    Shan Van Vocht (anonymous Irish ballad from the late 1790s)
    Sir Lout ("Fee fie fo fum" nursery rhyme)
    Toad eyes (English nursery rhyme Cock Robin)
    Tooraloom (1873 English song I Vowed That I Would Never Leave Her by Arthur Lloyd)
    Where was Moses? (19th century parlor song Where Was Moses When the Light Went Out?)
    Who’s getting it up? (O Mary Lost the Pin of Her Drawers)
    Yorkshire Girl (music hall song My Girl's a Yorkshire Girl by C. W. Murphy and Dan Lipton)
    You are my darling (traditional Irish ballad)

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    Agenbite of inwit (guilty conscience)
    And ever shall be (entrapment)
    As others see us (humbling effects of being seen objectively)
    Black panther (projection)
    Caliban (unpleasant self-knowledge)
    Cloud cover (moods in response to weather)
    The cold of interstellar space (loneliness)
    Did I not take it up? (forgetfulness)
    Exodus (entrapment)
    Fortune's knave (contemptuous resentment)
    Happy warmth (association of warmth with wellbeing)
    His legs (body dissociation)
    Hypnotic suggestion (disturbing effects of parasomnias)
    Leah (guilt toward a parent)
    Lotus Eaters (drugged states)
    No thoughts (freeing the mind from its thoughts)
    Parallax (seeing things from multiple viewpoints)
    Pulses beating (anger, self-absorption of grief)
    Right. Right. (obsessive-compulsive thoughts)
    Same dream (prophetic dreams and lucid dreaming)
    Slumming (philanthropism and voyeurism)
    Squashed lice (humbling effects of bodily affliction)
    Telemachus (search for sense of purpose)
    To the right (distracted state of mind)
    Two fingers (being absorbed in thought)
    Vailed eyelids (the look of love)
    Where is my hat? (forgetfulness)

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Religious people

   Aquinas (medieval theologian)
    Augur's rod (ancient priests)
    Averroes and Maimonides (Islamic and Jewish medieval theologians)
    Christian Brothers (Catholic lay order)
    Columbanus (early medieval saint)
    A communion (priests)
    Conversion (archbishop)
    Descende, calve (biblical prophet)
    Deshil Holles Eamus (ancient priests)
    Druids (ancient priests)
    Different churches (12th century monk and archbishop Saint Laurence O'Toole)
    Exodus (imitation of Jewish and Catholic celebrants)
    Father Conmee (contemporary Catholic priest)
    Father Farley (contemporary Catholic priest)
    Father Mathew (19th century Catholic priest)
    Father Vaughan (English Jesuit preacher)
    Freemasons (quasi-spiritual fraternal order)
    Hangman god (God as butcher)
    Hollow shells (pilgrims to Compostela)
    Huguenots (17th century French Protestants)
    Increase and multiply (power of priests)
    Ingemiscit (Saint Ambrose, bishop)
    Into the choir (two popes)
    Jesuits (Catholic clerical order)
    Jesus wept (Jesus)
    Joachim (12th century prophetic mystic)
    Kidneys of wheat (well-fed priests)
    Malachi (biblical prophet)
    Martha and Mary (Jesus)
    Mass for Pope Marcellus (three popes)
    Mohammed (Mohammed)
    Occam (friar William of Ockham)
    Old Mrs Riordan (pious believer)
    An ounce of opium (worshipers)

    Pico della Mirandola (syncretic 15th century theologian)
    Plump shadowed face (Pope Alexander VI)
    Repent! (Stephen's Catholic family)
    Sacred Heart (Margarent Mary Alacoque, 17th century French nun)
    Sodality (Catholic lay worshipers)
    Ursula (medieval saint)

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Science and technology

    Absolute zero (physics and astronomy)
    Alchemists (alchemy and modern chemistry)  
    Blowing the bellows (electrification of pipe organs)
    Clack back (cinema)
    Couldn’t sink (physics of floating bodies)
    Delta of Cassiopeia (astronomical study of supernovae)
    Edenville (telephones)
    Flying Dutchmen (steamships)
    Gas: then solid: then world (nebular hypothesis of star formation, Lord Rosse's telescope)
    Gramophone (device for playing back sound recordings)
    Hanched (chemistry of mustard seeds)
    Heaventree (astronomy)
    Huguenots (Jacquard loom)
    Matches (friction-ignited sticks)
    Mauve (synthetic aniline dyes)
    Mutoscope pictures (moving picture devices)
    Old Christmas (astronomical basis of calendars)
    Parallax (astronomical measurement of stellar distances)
    Parsee tower of silence (chemical action of quicklime)
    Phantom ship (physics of an optical illusion)
    Photo girl (photography)
    Pointsman (railway track switches)
    Seem to like it (animal behavior, infectious disease)
    Smallpox (immunology and vaccination)
    Stereoscope (three-dimensional image device)
    Sunphone (photoacoustic communication device)
    Sweny's (Victorian pharmacies)
    Weight (physics of falling bodies)
    Whispering gallery (physics of an auditory illusion)
    Wonder is it true (function of cat whiskers, physics of radiant energy)
    X rays (radiography)
    Yeates and Son (optics)

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    A cenar teco (predatory sexuality)
    Acetic acid (contraception)
    All those words (naughty language)
    Amor matris (maternal love and sexual love)
    Balm of Gilead (masturbation)
    Beef to the heels (attractiveness and unattractiveness)
    Bleibtreustrasse (monogamous fidelity)
    Breasts (non-sexual associations)
    Come home to ma (segregation of genders)
    Cuckoo (cuckoldry)
    Culotte Rouge (soft pornography)
    Daniel O'Connell (reputed promiscuity)
    Dare not speak its name (homosexuality)
    Davy Byrne’s (homosexuality)
    Dewy (sexual excitement, semen)
    Flesh of a different man (non-sexual touch)
    Genuine Christine (black mass)
    Gold Cup (sexual suggestions of horse race)
    Henry Flower (plants' sexual organs)
    His backward eye (cuckoldry)
    Horsey women (fantasies of rich women)
    Howth tram (sex in natural settings)
    I’m melting (masturbation)
    Increase and multiply (fertilization)
    Infinite possibilities (contraception)
    Ingemiscit (childbirth, sexual weariness)
    Jingle (sexually charged sounds)
    Là ci darem la mano (seduction, subordination to wife)
    Language of flowers (sexual signaling)
    Leave it to my hands (pornography)
    Licentious men (death in flagrante)
    Light of love (promiscuity)
    Lord Byron (first kisses)
    Mantrap (prostitutes and johns)
    Margate strand (voyeurism)
    Maud Gonne (prostitution)
    Moore (condoms, sexuality in fiction)
    Mother Grogan (promiscuity)
    Mrs Marion (subordination to wife)
    Nighttown (prostitution)
    No hair there (heterosexual revulsion)
    Old England (prostitution and venereal disease)
    Omphalos (neo-paganism)
    Pain of love (romantic sexual love)
    Photo Bits (soft pornography)
    Photo girl (pornography)
    Pickmeup (casual sex)
    Picnic (association with the outdoors)
    Potato (symbolic intercourse)
    Preceding series (Molly’s supposed lovers)
    Pugnose (anal eroticism)
    Quoits (sexually suggestive shapes, sounds, and words)
    Ruby, Pride of the Ring (sadism in the circus)
    Salt cloak (arrested sexuality)
    Seem to like it (masochism)
    Shelbourne Hotel (fantasies of rich women)
    Vailed eyelids (gaze of sexual adoration)
    Vampire (pornography, predatory sexuality)
    Venereal disease (prostitution)
    What kind of voice is it? (castration)
    White button (anal sexuality)
    The witching hour (horror and sexual passion)

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    Agenbite of inwit (Macbeth)
    As others see us (Hamlet)
    Coign of vantage (Macbeth)
    Cypherjugglers (authorship question)
    Dog of my enemy (King Lear)
    Dundrum press (Macbeth)
    Five fathoms (The Tempest)
    Fortune’s knave (Antony and Cleopatra)
    Glimpses of the moon (Hamlet)
    Grey pants (Hamlet)
    He made money (Othello, author's life and career)
    Horsey women (Julius Caesar)
    Huggermugger (Hamlet)
    Into a nutshell (Hamlet)
    Kickshaws (Twelfth Night)
    Light of love (Much Ado about Nothing)
    Local colour (Hamlet)
    Lord Byron (Richard II)
    The man in the macintosh (Hamlet)
    Moody brooding (Hamlet)
    No mistakes (life and writing)
    Nuncle (King Lear)
    Pebbles (King Lear)
    Sacred Heart (Othello)
    Sandal shoon (Hamlet)
    Shrewridden (The Taming of the Shrew)
    Slimmer (sonnet 130)
    Slowed, shunted, changed (rhetorical tropes)
    Staring out of death (Hamlet)
    This side idolatry (Hamlet, author's reputation)
    Tower (Hamlet)
    Unweeded garden (Hamlet)
    Usurper (Hamlet)
    Vailed eyelids (Hamlet, Venus and Adonis, 1 Henry VI, Pericles, Edward III)
    Very like a whale (Hamlet)
    The witching hour (Hamlet)
    Yokefellow (Henry V)

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Things worn and carried

Ashplant (Stephen's cane)
    Blazes Boylan (serge suit, straw hat, shoes, socks)
    Bretelles (dress ornamentations)
    Brogues (Stephen's shoes)
    Card behind the headband (greeting cards)
    Clay pipe (Bloom's peasant pipe)
    Clery's summer sales (straw hat)
    Collar of gold (warrior's jewelry)
    Crape (black armbands)
    Dancecards (Stephen's mother's mementos of formal balls)
    Did I not take it up? (Stephen's handkerchief)
    Eton suit (clothes Bloom imagines Rudy wearing)
    Exodus (Stephen's cane and hat)
    Featherfans (
Stephen's mother's formal attire)
    Filibegs (King Edward's kilts)
    Freeman’s Journal (Bloom's newspaper)
    Green stone (Haines' cigarette case)
    Hornblower (fox-hunting clothes)
    Huge key (key to Martello tower door)
    Huguenots (poplin cloth)
    Into my eye (Bloom's cigar)
    Kickshaws (stockings)
    Latin quarter hat (Stephen's soft hat)
    Listed feet (Bloom's slippers)
    Martin Cunningham (his silk hat)
    Mauve (popular artificial color)
    Opoponax (Molly's perfume scent)
    Panama hat (Mulligan's woven hat)
    Potato (magical talisman)
    Ruddy wool (Rudy's sweater)
    Savingsbox (Deasy's coin holder)
    Scapulars (religious cloth patches)
    Skyblue clocks (Boylan's socks)
    Sodality (vestments and banners)
    Stolewise (Mulligan's towel)
    Tam (Milly's soft cap)
    Tap with it (Stephen's cane)
    Waistcoat (Mulligan's vest)
    Where is my hat? (Bloom's hat)
    Yellow dressinggown (Mulligan's robe)
    Yeates and Son (Bloom's binoculars)

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    Armstrap (protective loops on carriage walls)
    Brewery barge (river barges carrying Guinness stout east to seagoing ships)
    Broadstone Terminus (railway terminal for western parts of Ireland)
    Cabman's shelter (sites for nonalcoholic rest and refreshment)
    Circulation (tram system, mail delivery system)
    Grand and Royal Canals (canals to western Ireland that defined the limits of inner-city Dublin)
    Greystones (train lines to southern suburbs)
    Hazard (cabstands)
    Howth tram (tram to town northeast of Dublin)
    Jaunting car (horse-drawn open-air two-wheel cabs)
    Kingsbridge Station (railway terminal for southwestern parts of Ireland)
    Kish lightship (lightships, Bloom's trip with Milly on the Erin's King)
    Lochlanns (Viking warships)
    Mailboat (twice-daily mail service between Kingstown and Holyhead, Wales)
    Midland bogs (transporting turf to Dublin by canal barges)
    Mullingar (railway lines)
    Pointsman (switches in railway lines)
    Sandymount Trams (two tram stops in southeastern suburb)
    Tramways Company (Dublin’s tram company)
    Westland Row (railway terminal for southeastern parts of  Ireland)

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Victorian legacies

    Crape (mourning cloth)
    Dancecards (women's accessories at formal balls)
    Feather fans (outdated women's fashion accessory)
    Frogmore Memorial (Victoria’s tomb for Albert and herself)
    Gas: then solid: then world (negative and positive responses to progressivist cosmos)
    Grey pants (mourning customs)
    Hellenise it (Matthew Arnold’s moral and aesthetic imperatives)
    King Edward (Dirty Bertie becomes king)
    Language of flowers (non-verbal communication of romantic feelings)
    Mutes (mourning customs)
    No hair there (John Ruskin’s horrified response to the female body)
    One great goal (optimistic conceptions of historical progression)
    Slumming (slum tourism)
    Tam (new women's fashion mode)

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Visual arts

    Cantrell and Cochrane's (engraving by Richard Hamilton)
    Ecce homo (canvases by Hungarian painter Miháli Munkácsy)
    Foundation stone (Augustus Saint-Gaudens statue of Parnell)
    Graham Lemon's (Robin Buck's bronze plaques)
    Isosceles triangle (mathematics in Leonardo da Vinci's art)
    Kildare Street Club (designed by architects Benjamin Woodward and Sir Thomas Deane)
    King Billy's horse (statue of King William III)
    Language of flowers (floral iconography)
    Leave it to my hands (engraving by Richard Hamilton)
    Madeline the mare (watercolorist Madelaine Lemaire, sculptor Philippe Lemaire)
    Martha and Mary (paintings by the Old Masters)
    Mrs Marion (John Jones drawing of Bloom and Molly)
    Naked, in a womb (Frank Budgen drawing of Bloom in the bath)
    National Library (designed by architects Sir Thomas Deane father and son)
    Nelson’s Pillar (statue by Thomas Kirk)
    O’Connell Street (statue by John Foley)
    Proteus (Frank Budgen drawing of Stephen on the beach)
    Sacred Heart (Catholic icons and ancient Greek paintings)
    Sir John Gray (statue by Sir Thomas Farrell)
    Sir Philip Crampton (John Kirk fountain)
    Vampire (drawing of winged man by W. T. Horton)
    William Smith O’Brien (statue by Sir Thomas Farrell)

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