The Freeman's Journal, often referred to simply as the "Freeman" in the novel, was one of Dublin's daily newspapers. This nationalist publication (a designation better deserved at some times than at others) was Ireland's first truly national paper during the 19th century, and in 1904 its circulation was so large that it could claim (in weekly ads) to be "the leading Irish newspaper." In Joyce's fiction Leopold Bloom works for the paper as an ad canvasser, and it figures in most of his chapters from Calypso onwards.

JH 2018

Detail from page 1 of the Freeman's Journal for June 16, 1904. Source: