Today the "Irish Independent" is the daily newspaper with the largest circulation in Ireland, but at the time of the novel's events it was a somewhat smaller concern called the Irish Daily Independent, founded in 1890 to support Charles Stewart Parnell. In Circe the Citizen expresses contempt for the current state of a paper "founded by Parnell to be the workingman's friend." He probably would have abominated even more strongly the new version of the paper, which was launched in January 1905 and has now lasted for more than a century. It viciously attacked the labor union movement during the Dublin lockout of 1913.

JH 2018

Source: www.irishnewsarchive.com.

The Irish Daily Independent of 1 September 1900. The masthead reflects the paper's recent absorption of another newspaper called the Daily Nation.  Source: www.irishnewsarchive.com.

Page 1 of the first issue (2 January 1905) of the renamed Irish Independent that replaced the Irish Daily Independent, from Hugh Oram's A History of Newspapers in Ireland, 1649-1983. Source: Wikimedia Commons.