The annotations on this site build upon previous efforts and attempt to acknowledge initellectual debts. Ulysses Annotated: Notes for James Joyce’s Ulysses, by Don Gifford with Robert Seidman, 2nd ed. (University of California Press, 1988), is the standard work in the field and is cited repeatedly in these notes simply as Gifford, or sometimes as Gifford and Seidman (Seidman researched the musical allusions, and the rhetorical figures in Aeolus) with the kind permission of Robert Seidman and Don Gifford's heirs. The earlier Allusions in Ulysses: An Annotated List, by Weldon Thornton, 2nd ed. (University of North Carolina Press, 1968), is cited simply as Thornton.

Of the many biographies written of Joyce and his close relatives and friends, the indispensable standard remains James Joyce by Richard Ellmann, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 1982), frequently cited here simply as Ellmann. Other biographies are cited with more complete bibliographical information.

Critical studies of Joyce’s works, and other scholarly studies, are referenced in the notes with a slightly abbreviated version of standard academic citation. Unpublished dissertations, theses, and papers are cited simply by year. All journal names are spelled out, with the exception of the often-cited James Joyce Quarterly, which is referred to simply as JJQ. Websites are cited by url address, occasionally with an active link.

All quotations of the Bible refer to the King James translation. All quotations of works by Shakespeare are taken from The Riverside Shakespeare, ed. G. Blakemore Evans et al, 2nd ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 1997). Quotations of Homer’s Odyssey come from various English translations, cited independently in the notes. Quotations of Dante are translated by Robert and Jean Hollander. Quotations of Joyce’s other fictions refer to page numbers in commonly available Penguin paperback editions: Dubliners as edited by Terence Brown, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man as edited by Seamus Deane, and Finnegans Wake as edited by John Bishop. (Pagination is identical in nearly all editions of the Wake.)

Most of the photographic images that accompany the notes have been widely disseminated on the World Wide Web, and are assumed to be in the public domain. Every effort is made to identify and cite the creator of the work, its location if displayed in a museum, church, or other public space, and the address of a relatively authoritative website if the image appears on many. We do not intend to infringe artistic copyright, and will promptly remove any images that do so (see Corrections). Some sites have supplied many images, among them the National Archives of Ireland at Other photographs were taken by Gareth Collins (see Contributors), and are used with his permission.

Still other images on the site have been scanned from books, selectively, in accordance with fair-use principles. Several books have supplied multiple images:

Finerty, John F. Ireland in Pictures. 1898. (Photographs taken by the author.)
Mitchell, Flora H. Vanishing Dublin. Allen & Figgis, 1966. (Watercolors painted by the author.)
Pearl, Cyril. Dublin in Bloomtime: The City James Joyce Knew. Viking Press, 1969. (Photographs from the National Library of Ireland.)
Tindall, William York. The Joyce Country. Schocken, 1972. (Photographs taken by the author in the 1950s and 60s.)
Bidwell, Bruce and Linda Heffer. The Joycean Way: A Topographic Guide to "Dubliners" & "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man." The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. (Photographs and maps.)
Pierce, David. James Joyce's Ireland. Yale University Press, 1992. (Photographs.)

Video clips come mainly from YouTube. When it is possible to identify performers and dates or locations of performance, they are cited in the captions. All copyright questions concerning these clips should be directed to the persons who have posted them on YouTube. Audio clips come from a variety of sources. Maps come from Google Maps and from cited books.