After hats, the "waistcoat" figures more often in Ulysses than any other article of male attire. Equivalent to the vests in American three-piece suits but higher-buttoning and often contrasting in color, waistcoats were expected of well-dressed men in the still-formal Edwardian era. In Joyce's narrative they fulfill not only social conventions but also some basic human needs.

John Hunt 2023

Oil portrait by Thomas Kirkby of General Peter Heron (1770-1849) of Moor Hall, Cheshire, in a primrose waistcoat. Source: www.askart.com.

Oil on canvas Portrait of a Man with a Red Waistcoat ca. 1800-1819, held in the National Library of Wales. Source: artuk.org.

The Tailor, ca. 1570 oil portrait by Giovanni Battista Moroni showing a man wearing a Renaissance doublet, held in the National Gallery, London.
Source: Wikimedia Commons.