In June 1904 Russian and Japanese armed forces had been at war for several months. Militarism was fed by imperial territorial ambitions on both sides, and both nations had a hand in initiating the hostilities, but many colonized people around the world sympathized with the Japanese because Russia had long been an aggressive and brutally autocratic imperial power. Ulysses suggests that many Irish nationalists took heart from Japan's decisive military victories over the Russians, hoping that the British imperium might soon be similarly humiliated.

John Hunt 2022

The Russian empire at the time of the Russo-Japanese war.

East Asian imperial powers at the time of the Russo-Japanese war.

Illustration in Collier & Son's 1904 book titled Russo-Japanese War: A Photographic and Descriptive Review of the Great Conflict in the Far East.
Source: Wikimedia Commons.

A Humorous Diplomatic Atlas of Europe and Asia, 1904 map drawn by Kisaburō Ohara, held in the Cornell University Library. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Tsar Nicholas II in a 1912 photographic portrait that has been cropped and retouched. Source: Wikimedia Commons.