In an allusion that can easily be missed in Hades, Bloom imagines that the old woman peering out of her window onto Newbridge Avenue is "Thanking her stars she was passed over." He must be thinking in a wry way of the Passover, because in Aeolus he reflects at length on this Jewish holiday. In a section introduced by the headline "AND IT WAS THE FEAST OF THE PASSOVER" (echoing similar phrases in John 2:13, 6:4, 11:55, and 19:14), Bloom recalls the rituals in which his devout father instructed him. His thoughts harmonize with Stephen's fancy of a hangman God, since Passover celebrates the bloody justice of a divine protector who rules over a world of death.

John Hunt 2020

Open Air Minyan, 2020 painting by Zoya Cherkassky for Passover in the year of social distancing. Source:

The Angel of Death and the First Passover, illustration in Charles Foster's Bible Pictures and What They Teach Us (1897), with Hebrews gathered to hold a seder dinner inside their marked house. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Israeli-made Hebrew-English Passover Haggadah book. Source:

A modern edition of the Chad Gadya rendered in both Hebrew and English, date unknown. Source: