New Jerusalem

Amid all the talk about "nations," the Citizen implies that Bloom, as the son of a Hungarian Jew, is not really Irish: "What is your nation if I may ask." Bloom's reply is immediate and unambiguous: "Ireland . . . I was born here. Ireland." Racial ancestry, even cultural and religious affiliation are one thing; citizenship and national loyalty are something else entirely. This sensible duality is lost on the monomaniacal Citizen, who replies contemptuously by spitting a gob of phlegm onto the floor. When Bloom rises to the bait, courageously asserting that his "race" has been subjected to at least as much persecution as the Irish have, the Citizen hits him with the European backlash against Zionism: "Are you talking about the new Jerusalem?"

JH 2013

Retouched photograph of Theodor Herzl. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

The Jewish State (Leipzig and Vienna, 1896). Source: Wikimedia Commons.