New Jerusalem

Amid all the talk about "nations," the Citizen implies that Bloom, as the son of a Hungarian Jew, is not really Irish: "What is your nation if I may ask." Bloom's reply is immediate and unambiguous: "Ireland...I was born here. Ireland." Racial ancestry, even cultural and religious affiliation are one thing; citizenship and national loyalty are something else entirely. This distinction is lost on the rabid barhound. When Bloom rises to his bait, asserting that Jews have encountered as much persecution as the Irish have, the Citizen strikes back with an assertion that Jews have divided loyalties: "Are you talking about the new Jerusalem?" The reference is to a recent development in European political discourse: Zionism.

JH 2013

Retouched photograph of Theodor Herzl. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

The Jewish State (Leipzig and Vienna, 1896). Source: Wikimedia Commons.