Concentration camp

Averse to English justifications of mass death, which in the annals of Irish history include a policy of allowing millions to starve in the name of free trade, Stephen says of Hamlet that "The bloodboltered shambles in act five is a forecast of the concentration camp sung by Mr Swinburne." Then he drives home the point by quoting from one of Swinburne's poems: "Whelps and dams of murderous foes whom none / But we had spared..." Praising the British army for not slaughtering defenseless noncombatants (while imaging them as hateful dogs) is barbarous enough, but in fact troops in South Africa were doing something even more horrifying to women and children. They pioneered the large-scale "concentration camps" that the Nazis later brought to a peak of sadistic perfection. 

JH 2022

Cartoon by Jean Veber (?) from the 28 September 1901 issue of the French magazine L'Assiette au Beurre depicting a Boer woman protesting the death of Boer children. Source:

The principal British concentration camps. Source: The Genocide of the Boers.

  Photograph of a starving child in one of the camps, with a caption by Goodson that reads, "War-hardened British photographers made fun of the emaciated children in British concentration camps." Source: The Genocide of the Boers.

  Photograph by Emily Hobhouse, a representative of the South African Women and Children's Distress Fund, of Lizzie van Zyl, an internee in the Bloemfontein concentration camp who was punished with half rations. Dying, Van Zyl was transferred to a small hospital, labeled an idiot because she spoke only Afrikaans, and treated harshly by doctors and nurses. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Photograph of a mother with her dead child, taken by Emily Hobhouse in 1901. Source: The Genocide of the Boers.