As the self-appointed embodiment of Irish nationalism in the bar, and as someone associated with the Gaelic League, the Citizen voices contempt for Irishmen "that can't speak their own language." He regularly sprinkles Irish words and short phrases into his speech: "a chara," "Bi i dho husht," "Sinn Fein!...Sinn Fein amhain!," "Slan leat," "Na bacleis," "pishogue," "Raimeis." But many of these expressions were commonplace in Hiberno-English speech, and two of them mean something other than the Citizen seems to suppose. Like the narrator of Eumaeus, who regularly tosses out italicized French and Latin words in order to appear cultivated—and as a result sounds pretentious—the Citizen shows off a bilingual facility that is more broad than deep. In this as in many other ways, he is full of hot air.

John Hunt 2021

2016 photograph of Irish President Michael Higgins with now US President Joe Biden, whom he addressed in a 2020 letter as "Dear Mr President, Joe, a chara." Source: www.irishtimes.com.

Source: folklore.ie.

Political poster from 1930s Ireland (the dotted "m" is interchangeable in Irish with "mh"). Source: www.whytes.ie.

Still shot from STAR translations services, Dublin. Source: www.youtube.com.

Source: imgur.com.

Concrete chunk with the Irish message "Piteogs out of Ireland," thrown through a window of Dublin's gay bar Pantibar in 2018, Source: twitter.com.