When Mulligan talks in Telemachus of his name having "a Hellenic ring," and again when he says that he and Stephen working together "might do something for the island. Hellenise it," he is voicing a tenet of late Victorian counterculture advanced by the poet and man of letters "Matthew Arnold" (1822-1888). Arnold's theory informs statements elsewhere in Ulysses about Greekness and Jewishness.

JH 2011

Formal photographic portrait of Matthew Arnold, made by Elliott & Fry ca. 1883, held in the National Portrait Gallery, London. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Actual Greek Jews: Romaniotes, members of Jewish communities that have existed in various parts of Greece for two millennia. Most communities were devastated by the Nazi Holocaust and by subsequent emigrations to Israel. The Romaniotes had customs distinct from those of Sephardic Jews in Greece, and similar to those of Italian Jews like Joyce's friend Italo Svevo. Source: Wikimedia Commons.