When Mulligan says in Telemachus that he and Stephen working together "might do something for the island. Hellenise it," he is voicing a tenet of late Victorian counterculture advanced by the English poet and man of letters "Matthew Arnold" (1822-1888). Arnold's theory informs statements elsewhere in Ulysses about Greekness and Jewishness.

JH 2017

Caricature of Matthew Arnold by Jacques Joseph (James) Tissot, from the 11 November 1871 issue of Vanity Fair. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Edouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe, 1863 oil on canvas painting held in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Formal photographic portrait of Arnold by Elliott & Fry ca. 1883, held in the National Portrait Gallery, London. Source: Wikimedia Commons.