Seven hundred and fifty years of English occupation of Ireland (850 in Ulster, and counting) produced a few contemptuous names for the foreign conqueror. Four that appear in Ulysses are "Saxon," "Sassenach," "paleface," and "stranger."

JH 2017

Anglo-Norman knights disembarking at Waterford, before their battle with Rory O'Connor, high king of the Irish chieftains. Source: www.mainlesson.com.

Ireland in 1450, from wesleyjohnston.com. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Viking settlements in Ireland. Source: www.irelandstory.com.

Folio 53 of the 12th century Book of Leinster, one of more than a dozen medieval manuscripts that record the Lebor Gabála Érenn, held in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. Source: Wikimedia Commons.