The 750 years of English occupation of Ireland (850 in Ulster, and counting) have produced a number of different terms for the foreign invader, and the book contains several: "Saxon," "Sassenach," "stranger," "paleface." Unsurprisingly, these names for the conqueror tend to congregate in parts of the book where characters are discussing English imperialism and Irish resistance or acquiescence: Telemachus, Nestor, Aeolus, Cyclops, Circe, Eumaeus.

Anglo-Norman knights disembarking at Waterford, before their battle with Rory O'Connor, high king of the Irish chieftains.

Selwyn Gurney Champion, Racial Proverbs: A Selection of the World's Proverbs arranged Linguistically.

Viking settlements in Ireland. Source:

Maria Tymoczko, The Irish Ulysses (University of California Press, 1994).