Submerged tenth

Sitting in a cabman's shelter where a seedy cast of characters has replaced the middle-class bustle of daytime Dublin, Bloom mulls the fact that "the lives of the submerged tenth, viz., coalminers, divers, scavengers, etc., were very much under the microscope lately." In the 1840s, Henry Mayhew's newspaper articles (collected and published as London Labour and the London Poor in 1851) had generated great interest in the urban underclass, and half a century later two more books by pioneering social reformers revived this interest. Bloom's "submerged tenth" alludes to an influential work by English social worker William Booth, and it seems likely that another influential book by American journalist Jacob Riis figures in his thoughts. Circe alludes to a third book whose title Booth savagely parodied. 

John Hunt 2023

1912 photographic portrait of William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, held in the Library of Congress. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Illustration of the meeting between Stanley and Livingstone in Henry Morton Stanley's book How I Found Livingstone (1872). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Steerage accommodations (bunks, dining tables, and living space) on a White Star liner (not the Titanic). Source:

1906 photographic portrait of journalist Jacob Riis, held in the Library of Congress. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Bandits' Roost, 59 1/2 Mulberry Street, 1888 gelatin silver print by Jacob Riis held in the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Street Arabs in the Area of Mulberry Street, another Riis photograph ca. 1890. Source: Wikimedia Commons.