Just as Joyce modeled Mulligan on his friend Gogarty, he modeled "Haines" on Gogarty’s other guest in the tower, a well-off young Hiberno-English scholar named Richard Samuel Chenevix Trench who was born in 1881, one year before Joyce. Gogarty met Trench during a term at Oxford in early 1904, a fact which accounts for Mulligan's referring to "the oxy chap downstairs." In 1909, following an unhappy love affair, Trench killed himself with a handgun—perhaps the same one that terrorized Joyce in the middle of the night.

JH 2011

Poster for La Haine, French black-and-white film by Mathieu Kassovitz (1995).

Copy of Dermot Trench's What is the Use of Reviving Irish? (1907), held in the James Joyce Museum, Sandymount. Source: John Hunt.

December 1863 drawing of Richard Chenevix Trench, artist unknown. Source: Wikimedia Commons.