Just as Joyce modeled Mulligan on his friend Gogarty, he modeled "Haines" on Gogarty’s other guest in the tower, a well-off young Hiberno-English scholar named Richard Samuel Chenevix Trench who was born in 1881, one year before Joyce. Gogarty met Trench during a term at Oxford in early 1904, a fact which accounts for Mulligan's referring to "the oxy chap downstairs" in Telemachus and for Stephen's thinking in Scylla and Charybdis that Mulligan has acquired the "Manner of Oxenford." In 1909, following an unhappy love affair, Trench killed himself with a handgun—perhaps the same one that terrorized Joyce in the middle of the night.

JH 2011

Poster for La Haine, French black-and-white film by Mathieu Kassovitz (1995).

Copy of Dermot Trench's What is the Use of Reviving Irish? (1907), held in the James Joyce Museum, Sandymount. Source: John Hunt.

December 1863 drawing of Richard Chenevix Trench, artist unknown. Source: Wikimedia Commons.