Ulysses begins with "Stately, plump Buck Mulligan" stepping onto the stage and gaily mocking the Catholic faith. Joyce modeled Malachi Mulligan on his one-time friend Oliver St. John Gogarty, a medical student who reportedly rented the tower in order to give Joyce a place to live and write.

JH 2011

Photograph of Oliver Gogarty in 1899, age 21. Reproduced in Ellmann courtesy of Oliver D. Gogarty.

Oliver Gogarty as painted by William Orpen in 1911. Source: Wikimedia Commons.